Dates for Colonialism, Art Movements, and WWI

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all the dates to memorize for Test 3

Second Industrial Revolution

1860s
increases in productivity; econ boom thru europe

Paris Commune

1871
Communists take over for 10days...first "rule by workers" in europe

Imperialism

19th century - Europe's want for economic and poliitical power by taking over other countries

King Leopold II

took over Congo Free State 1885

The Best Circles

Victorian England 1900s

Sir Henry Morton Stanley

died 1904
famous for finding Henry Livingstone and infamous for aiding in the set up of the Congo Free State

Social Darwinism

1860 - term coined by Thomas Huxley
scientific racism

Positivism

first proposed by August Comte in 1830
"philosophy of Epistemology" - the world is a knowable place. Rejection of metaphysical knowledge

Charles Darwin

wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859
opposed Polygeniture ideas, but for creditibility's sake his name got stuck with Social Darwinism

Herbert Spencer

coined the term "survival of the fittest" (1857)
founder of Social Darwinism; history is the story of progress from simple to advanced

Cecil Rhodes

had an ambition for England to rule all of Africa "from Cape to Cairo". died 1902

Fin de Siecle

1856-1939
end of the century...impending sense of change

Sigmund Freud

1899 "Interpretation of Dreams"; pyschoanalyst
believed that our subconscious self exerts a major impact on outward behaviour; Id, Ego, Superego

Friedrich Nietzsche

Nihilist and german philosopher "God is Dead"
questioned fundamental meaning of life and universe...believed that there was NO meaning to life...ppl just exist and then die

Realism

Late 19th Century
Trying to capture a single ordinary moment in time...
Beginning of Photography

Impressionism

1870
showed what ppl wanted to see rather than Realism; bright, luminous, but everythings a bit fuzzy... Intentionally perfect.

Edvard Munch

artist; painted The Scream in 1893; depicting Freud's need for "Id explosion"
Expressionistic Movement - response to Impressionistic arts

Pablo Picasso

famous Expressionistic artistic

Belle Epoque

1871 France becomes center of arts; "The Beautiful Era"...peaceful times for Europe..ending with WWI 1914

Triple Entente

England-France-Russia alliance

Dual Alliance

Austria-Hungary + Germany makes an alliance for protection against Russia

Balkans

1877 - Russo-Turkish war fighting over control of Balkans
Melting-pot of ethnicities under Ottoman Empire's control; all of wanted natural resources and central location

Socialists

economic system where the means of production is owned by the people in order to promote distribution of wealth and public welfare

Anti-semitism

govt promotions of scapegoating and racism against the Jewish population in Europe

Dreyfus Affair

1890

Pogroms

1915 govt sanctioned mob violence against Jews in Russia

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

was assassinated in Sarajevo 1914 sparking WWI

Gavrilo Princeps

assassinated the Archduke in 1914

Schlieffen Plan

1914 - the German's plan to wage war on both sides of their country against France and Russia...but were taken by surprize at unforeseen changes

Trench Warfare

1914-1918 terribly bloody war tactic used in WWI

Western Front

France Germany etc..trench warfare...very systematic boundary lines

Eastern Front

fighting along the Russian border...many battles along the entire line..harsher conditions

Shell Shocked

1914-1918 :pychological shock to soldiers who faced bombings

WWI Propaganda

Rallied up nationalism in Europe and US; asked for soldiers and warbonds; de-humanized the enemy in the minds of the citizens; rallied hatred

Russian Revolution

1917 - Czar Nicholas II overthrown in favour of Communism lead by the Bolsheviks

Soviets

1917 - the Soviets were community level organizers who became the face of the govt. Eventually lead the rev

Vladimir Lenin

1917 - Russian Rev and wrote the April Theses, a plan for the Bolsheviks takeover of Russia; Lenin was the brain of the group

Bolsheviks

1917 Communist party in Russia who led the Revolution

October Revolution

1918 - Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Govt. Lenin exits Russia from WWI, Civil War breaks out, Capital moved to Moscow

Paris Peace Conference

1919-1920 : Ottoman Empire disbanded, Austria Hungary divided; Mandate System set up

Treaty of Versailles

1919 - War Guilt Clause for Germany. Alsace and Lorraine returned to France, Germany forced to pay repairation costs of 132 Marks, loses all colonies, forced to de-militarize.

Mandate System

Ottoman Empire's territories taken over by Allies 1919

Weimer Republic

1919-1933 : ineffective and hated Parliament of Germay after the war...many street protests and violent outbursts throughout country

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