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Lewis and Clark

The explorers who were sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase. They were sent mainly to find a water route connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. They expanded America's knowledge of the vast territory and warned of the hardships settlers would face moving west. However, they failed finding an all-water route.

John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and a staunch Federalist who knew that if the Supreme Court tried to force Madison to deliver the commission, the Jefferson administration would ignore the order.

Tecumseh and the Prophet

The Shawnee brothers that organized a large native confederacy in the face of an American advance westward. They fought General Harrison in the Battle of Teppecanoe. (Before War of 1812)

Andrew Jackson

Led the Southern troops in the War of 1812. He and his men thwarted the English attempt to control the Mississippi River in the Battle of New Orleans. However, there wasn't really a point in this battle since Britain and America signed a peace treaty 2 weeks earlier. (He didn't know about it, because communication was slow back then)

Essex Junto

A radical group of Federalists that Burr joined. This group plotted for a New England state secession from the Union and asked Hamilton if he would run for governor of New York to lead them. However, he refused to Burr said he would run. In the end, Hamilton crushed Burr's chances of election by leading the opposition faction and Burr wasn't elected. So the plot to secede pretty much faded away.

Burr Conspiracy

Burr's plan to wrest Mexico from the Spaniards and join it with the Louisiana Territory to create a new country to the west. This was reported to President Jefferson, who called for immediate arrest and trial for treason.

Tripolitan Wars

The Barbary pirates from North Africa kept seizing U.S. merchant ships as they traveled to the Mediterranean. Washington and Adams had to pay the leaders of North Africa to reduce the number of times the U.S. ships would be seized. However, one day, Tripoli leader demanded a higher sum for protection. Jefferson refused to pay and sent a small fleet of naval ships to kick the pirates' asses. The U.S. fought the pirates in this war for 4 years and they put a dent in the work of the pirates and gained water cred (street cred in the sea...hahaha)

Napoleonic War

In which the British and French punished each other by issuing decrees that would blockade trade into one another's ports. The Berlin Decree, Orders in Council, and Milan Decree were all a part of this war.

Battle of Tippecanoe

This battle caused congressmen in the frontier to feel justified in their call for war. General Harrison sought to break up a large native confederacy that a pair of Shawnee brothers organized in the face of an American advance westward.

Battle of New Orleans

The unnecessary battle that was fought by General Andrew Jackson who led his Southern troops to stop the English from controlling the Mississippi River. It was unnecessary because it was two weeks after the peace treaty between Britain and America was signed.

The Hartford Convention

In which the New England Federalists meet at a convention in Hartford, Connecticut, to discuss ways to demand the federal government pay them for the loss of trade due to the Embargo Act, Macon's Bill No.2 and the War of 1812. They also discussed possible amendments to the Constitution that would aim to hurt the Republicans. However, before they could announce their wishes, news of signing the Treaty of Ghent and Jackson's victory at New Orleans drowned them out.

Pinckney Treaty

Allowed the U.S. to enjoy the right of deposit.

Judiciary Act of 1801

In which 16 new Federalist judgeships were created by President John Adams. He appointed the "midnight judges" who would serve on the bench during Jefferson's administration. They were very last minute.

Twelfth Amendment

Called for electors to the Electoral College to specify which ballot was being cast for the office of president and which was being cast for the office of vice president. This was to prevent the tie that was brought the election before with Burr and Jefferson.

Berlin Decree

Napoleon's attempt to cut Britain off from the rest of the world. This meant that American ships traveling there to deposit goods would get caught in the mess.

Orders in Council

The British responded by closing all ports under French control. Any American ship traveling to mainland Europe that did not stop first in Britain would be confiscated.

Milan Decree

Napoleon strikes back to the Orders in Council with this. It would authorize the French navy to seize any foreign ship traveling to Europe that had first stopped in Britain. American shippers could continue trade at great risk but reap great rewards in profits.

Embargo Act

Jefferson persuaded Congress to pass this. It would prohibit U.S. merchant vessels from anchoring at any foreign port. Jefferson hoped that this would cripple the economy of Britain and France by the loss of American trade and they would be forced to respect America. However, this backfired it damaged the U.S. economy. New England was especially damaged.

Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

This was passed by Congress in the last days of Jefferson's presidency to replace the Embargo Act. This law allowed the U.S. to trade with foreign nations except Britain and France.

Macon's Bill Number 2

This sought to lift trade restrictions against Britain or France but only after they agreed to honor U.S. neutrality. Napoleon said yes in hopes of stirring tensions between the U.S. and Britain. Madison was, however, fooled by Napoleon who never intended to honor his promise. In short, this failed and the British and French continued their practice of impressment and ship seizures, pushing the U.S. closer and closer to the brink of war.

The Star-Spangled Banner

This is a song that Francis Scott Key wrote, inspired by the fighting that happened at Fort McHenry where U.S. held the fort through a night of bombing.

Treaty of Ghent

This ended the War of 1812. It was signed by American envoys and British diplomats. The provisions of the treaty provided for the end of the fighting, the return of any conquered territories to their rightful owners, and the settlement of a boundary between Canada and the U.S. that had been set before the war.

midnight judges

Appointed by John Adams, these were Federalists that Adams hoped would help the now-Republican judiciary branch. These would serve on the bench during Jefferson's administration.

writ of mandamus

Jefferson ordered Madison not to deliver the commissions to the last-minute appointments, blocking them from being judgeships. This was an order to force Madison to deliver the commission that the Supreme Court could have issued, however Marshall knew that the Jefferson administration would simply ignore this order.

judicial review

This would increase the power of the Supreme Court for it would check the authority of both the legislative and executive branches.

impeachment

This is what happened to Samuel Chase due to his highly partisan decisions. The Senate however, refused to do this to Chase due to the absence of any evidence in regards to "high crimes and misdemeanors"

secession

Radical members of the Hartford Convention considered this for the New England States from the rest of the Union.

American Party

Also known as the Know-Nothing Party. They were extreme nativists who opposed immigration and the election of Roman Catholics to political office. They would meet in secret and would not tell anyone what they stood for instead saying, "I know nothing," when asked.

Know-Nothing Party

Also known as the American Party. They were extreme nativists who opposed immigration and the election of Roman Catholics to political office. They would meet in secret and would not tell anyone what they stood for instead saying, "I know nothing," when asked.

Era of Good Feeling

Time period after the War of 1812. This was a renewed sense of independence and national pride in which Monroe was elected as president. However this was not always as happy. This period also had tension regarding tariffs, slavery, and political power within the Republican party.

The Panic of 1819

Threatened the Era of Good Feeling. The Second Bank of the U.S. caused this financial crisis because it overspeculated on land in the west and attempted to curb inflation by pulling back on credit for state banks.

The Tariff of 1816

This was urged by Monroe. It imposed a 20 percent duty on all imported goods and became the first truly "protected tariff" in American history. This was made to deter cheap British goods from flooding into the market and injuring American manufacturing.

Tallmadge Amendment

This would not allow any more slaves to be brought into the state and would provide for the emancipation of the children of Missouri slaves at the age of 25 years. Southerners were enraged by this abolition attempt by Northern representatives and crushed the amendment in the Senate.

The Missouri Compromise

Three bills that allowed for the admission of Missouri as a slave state, while also admitting Maine as a free state, to maintain the balance in the Senate. In addition, slavery would not be permitted above the 36'30' line.

The Rush-Bagot Treaty

This was back in Madison's presidency. It waas a treaty signed with U.S. and Britain to resolve issues involving Canada. It provided for the disarmament of the Great Lakes and frontier borders and created the largest unfortified border in the world between the U.S. and Canada.

The Adams-Onis Treaty

In which the U.S. purchased Florida from Spain and gained Spanish assurances that it would abandon its claims in the Oregon Territory

The Monroe Doctrine

A warning to the European powers to stay out of the western hemisphere. It quickly became the basis of U.S. foreign policy from that point forward. It called for "nonintervention" in Latin America and the end to European colonization. It was designed to check the power of Europe in the Western hemisphere and flex the muscles of the young nation.

Erie Canal

Completed in 1825 with funds provided by the state of New York, this linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River. Suddenly, the cost of shipping dropped dramatically and led to the growth of port cities along the length of the canal and its terminal points

The American System

With this, Clay argued that the tariff would help establish manufacturing and bring in much needed revenue for internal improvements to aid those in the South.

overspeculation

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nativists

Members of the backlash movement against the immigrants

constituents

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inflation

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species

The United States was hit hard by the drop in demand for American agricultural goods abroad and a widening trade deficit with Britain, the BUS was forced to demand payment from state banks in this. (hard coin)

emancipation

This was provided of the children of Missouri slaves at the age of 25 years. It also means set free.

James Monroe

5th president. He ushered in an age of intense patriotism and reverence for American heroes of the past. He urged Congress to pass tariff to protect industry so the Tariff of 1816 was created.

John C. Calhoun

War hawk who spoke for the South, saying that the tariff was an attempt to line the pockets of Northern merchants at the expense of farmers and plantation owners in his region....

Daniel Webster

Spoke for the north who complained that New England had not developed fully enough to withstand interruptions in her ability to trade freely with Britain...

Henry Clay

Argued that the tariff, along with the American System would help establish manufacturing and bring in much needed revenue for internal improvements to aid those in the South

John Quincy Adams

While he was Secretary of State, he felt that an alliance between Britain and America would not be as innocent as it looked. He believed that the alliance would serve to hinder U.S. expansion and was simply a way for the British to protect their interests

Eli Whitney

He invented cotton gin

peculiar institution

Because there was an increase in the demand for the fiber, there was a growing demand for blacks which led to the population of African slaves to go from 1 million to 4 million

John C. Calhoun

He penned the Southern Carolina Exposition, outlining the anger of the South in the face of the "Tariff of Abominations." The essay expressed the Southern contention that the tariff was unconstitutional, as it severely altered trade with Europe that Southern farmers had become dependent on. He also recommended that the Southern states declare the tariff to be null and void if the federal government refused to lower the duty requirement.

Anti-Masons

A new third party (risen in 1832) to challenge the old two-party system.

National Republicans

Supported Henry Clay (this was during the late 1820's-early 1830's)

Whigs

Started in 1836 and this was basically another name for the National Republicans. Their ideology mirrored the long-lost platform of the old Federalist Party. It was founded to oppose Andrew Jackson.

Panic of 1837

Jackson's issue of the Specie Circular caused this. Due to the Specie Circular, the value of paper money plummeted and led to this.

The Southern Carolina Exposition

John C. Calhoun of South Carolina penned this, outlining the anger of the South in the face of the "Tariff of Abominations." The essay expressed the Southern contention that the tariff was unconstitutional, as it severely altered trade with Europe that Southern farmers had become dependent on. Calhoun also recommended that the Southern states declare the tariff to be null and void if the federal government refused to lower the duty requirement.

Trail of Tears

CHerokees were forcibly removed from the state of Georgia. This is the name of their trek, in which 4,000 Cherokee died en route to Oklahoma.

Gibbons v. Ogden

Marshall Court rules this (1824) The state of New York could not issue a monopoly to a steamboat company because it was in direct conflict with the commerce clause of the Constitution which gives the federal government control of interstate commerce.

Specie Circular

Jackson issues this. It requires the payment for purchase of all federal lands be made in hard coin or "specie" rather than banknotes. This caused the value of paper money to plummet and led to the Panic of 1837.

Tariff of 1828

New Englanders pushed for this to further protect them from foreign competitors. It had a duty of 45%. The South, Calhoun and Hayne greatly opposed this

Tariff of 1832

To try to appease the South, Jackson changed the Tariff of 1828 to lower it to 35%. However, this did not appease the South and South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.

Force Bill

Jackson didn't want South Carolina to secede from the Union. He was about to send troops when he decided instead to pass the Force Bill. This gave the president the power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose.

Indian Removal Act

Jackson understood the positive impact continued western expansion could have on the country and wanted white settlers to settle further west. However, the Native Americans were in the way. So he was all, "Oh guys, you're gonna have to move...sorry." So he forced all these Native Americans to move...that little bitch.

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

When the Native Americans were forced to move during the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokees didn't want to move without a fight. So they took their case to the Supreme Court. The Court ruled that the tribe was not a sovereign foreign nation and, therefore, had no right to sue for jurisdiction over its homelands.

Worcester v. Georgia

Another case in which John Marshall ruled that the state of Georgia could not infringe on the tribe's sovereignty thus nullifying Georgia state laws within Cherokee territory. (This was after Cherokee Nation v. Georgia)

Andrew Jackson

The seventh president who did all of the following: 1) Kill the BUS 2) Issue the Specie Circular which led to the Panic of 1837 3) Bring the Tariff of 1828 which put tariffs at the cost of 45% 4) Pass the Force Bill to stop South Carolina from seceding 5) Vetoed...a lot. 6) Was a proponent of the Spoils System 6) Brought the Indian Removal Act. He was also known for strengthening the executive branch.

Daniel Webster

This guy argued that the Constitution was a compact between the people and the government, not to be broken by the states acting on their behalf. (Referring to the South's complaining about the Tariff of 1828)

Robert Hayne

This guy claimed that the tariff was causing the economic troubles of South Carolina and that the Union of states was a compact between the states and the federal government and could be broken. (Referring to the Tariff of 1828)

corrupt bargain

In which Henry Clay knew he wouldn't win the presidency so he pushed John Quincy Adams in the front of the pack. When Adams won, he appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson was mad at this called it a....

pet bank

These were opponents of the BUS. They were smaller, state banks. Jackson, wanting to kill the BUS, removed all federal funds from the BUS into these small banks.

spoils system

In which a president would appoint those who supported his campaign to government positions.

kitchen cabinet

Jackson's cabinet, who were appointed by the spoils system. Critics lamented that the group of advisors did not have to answer to Congress as they were not "official cabinet officers"

suffrage

The ability to vote.

Charles G. Finney

A Presbyterian minister who appealed to his audience's emotion rather than their reason. His "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate New York where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. Finney insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God.

Dorothea Dix

She crusaded for the improvement of American mental institutions to care for the nation's mentally ill population. She crusaded relentlessly until patients were removed from prisons and other deplorable conditions and given proper treatment.

Horace Mann

He was the leader of the movement to reform the public school system in the United States. This movement swept the nation to raise a generation of well-behaved children (to stop criminal tendencies). Mann was instrumental in spreading state-funded free public education for youngsters across the country.

Harriet Tubman

She and Sojourner Truth helped fugitive slaves flee the United States through their elaborate network called the Underground Railroad

Sojourner Truth

He and Harriet Tubman helped fugitive slaves flee the United States through their elaborate network called the Underground Railroad

Frederick Douglass

Published The North Star and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery. He argued for legal means of fighting slavery in contrast to some other radical abolitionists.

Sarah and Angelina Grimke

Two vehement abolitionists who voiced their opposition to male dominance within the movement in 1837, thus starting the dialogue about women's roles

Joseph Smith

According to Mormon tradition, the angel Moroni visited this guy in his western New York bedroom and told Smith of a sacred text that was inscribed on gold plates that had been buried by the fabled "Lost Tribe of Israel" nearby and revealed to him the exact location of the treasure. This guy translated the sacred text and organized the Mormon Church.

Brigham Young

He collected his flock and moved further west into Deseret (now Utah). He took over after Smith was murdered by a mob.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

He and Henry David Thoreau spoke throughout the country and wrote scathing essays about the state of man.

Henry David Thoreau

He and Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke throughout the country and wrote scathing essays about the state of man. He wrote a book called Walden which chronicled his self-initiated experiment where he excused himself from society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years. He also wrote an essay called "On Civil Disobedience" where he advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest. His essay would inspire later social movement leaders Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Raised questions of religion through his works. He wrote The Scarlet Letter.

William Llloyd Garrison

Published The Liberator, a newspaper dedicated to the end of slavery in the U.S. He founded the American Antislavery Society to combat the pro-slavery contingent.

American Temperance Society

Revival preachers joined forces in the mid-1820s to form this. Their aim was to encourage drinkers to limit their intake of alcohol and then eventually take a vow of abstinence.

American Antislavery Society

Garrison found this in 1833. It would combat the pro-slavery contingent. It branched into the Liberty Party and the Foreign Antislavery Society.

Liberty Party

A branch of the Antislavery Society that accepted the membership of women.

Foreign Antislavery Society

A branch of the Antislavery Society that did NOT accept female participation

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Another way to say Mormon Church.

Mormon Church

Another way to say the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. The followers of Mormonism were chastised and ostracized by their surrounding community and left New York to head west

transcendentalists

This belief spurned materialism and embraced self-reliance. It encouraged Americans to throw off the yoke of wealth and want and embrace the beauty and truth of the natural world.

Shakers

They were led by "Mother" Ann Lee. They shook as they felt the spirit of god pulse through them during church services. They died out due to their forbidding of sexual relations.

Oneida Commune

They were founded by John Humphrey Noyes and were the shining example of equality between all members. They were however, controversial from the beginning. They shared everything even spouses....LOL. They died out.

Knickerbockers

American authors of New York (including Washington Irving) who started the trend of "American" fiction by using domestic settings and character types for their stories and tales.

Nat Turner's Rebellion

Nat Turner led this and organized a massive slave uprising in 1831. This resulted in the deaths of over 50 white men, women, and children and the retaliatory killings of hundreds of slaves. However, the rebellions signaled to many Americans that freeing the slaves would cause massive problems that they were unprepared to handle

Maine Law

Neal S. Dow led the way for this temperance movement to shift into the political arena. This would prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in that state. 12 other states passed similar laws.

The North Star

Douglass published this, an antislavery journal that chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery

Declaration of Sentiments

The women of Seneca Falls drafted this to closely model the Declaration of Independence by declaring that "all men and women are created equal" and demanding true universal suffrage to include females as well as males

Walden

Thoreau's best known book which chronicled his self-initiated experiment where he excused himself from the society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years

"On Civil Disobedience"

Thoreau's essay where he advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest. This inspired Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.

Underground Railroad

This was an elaborate network that helped fugitive slaves flee the United States. Tubman and Truth were a part of this

Seneca Falls

In which Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony organize a meeting of feminists

Perfectionism

The idea that humankind could reach a level of perfection that resembled the life of Jesus. Humans could obtain this level of perfection through faith, hard work, education, and temperance.

cult of domesticity

In which women's roles were clearly defined as homemakers and mothers

antebellum

Before war. "The ________ social reform movement worked on a local level, seeking only to affect individual morals"

Sam Houston

He led the Texans in a revolt that declared Texas a republic independent of Mexico. He also led a force thta successfully routed the Mexican forces and captured Santa Anna. He was chosen to lead Texas and applied for annexation to the union, however Jackson and Van Buren rejected this.

James K. Polk

He sought to capitalize on the expansionist spirit with his campaign slogan "Fifty-four forty or fight!" which would make the U.S. border reach RUssian Alaska. He backed down from the U.S. demand for all the Oregon Territory by d=negotiating with Britain. He was president during the Mexican War.

Bear Flag Republic

California had been declared independent as this under the leadership of John C. Fremont.

Wilmot Proviso

This signaled the start of an even deeper crisis that would pit the North against the South over issues of slavery, states' rights, and representation. It proposed an amendment to a bill that would forbid slavery in the new land acquired by the war with Mexico.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The end of the Mexican War was settled by this. This granted California and most of the Southwest to the United States. The American government agreed to pay war reparations in the sum of 15 million dollars to Mexico.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

This divided the contested territory between the U.S. and Britain and settled the northern boundary of Minnesota. This was at the end of an ALMOST Aroostook War (the one where British lumber companies wanted to build a road that would make it easier to transport lumber and connect various regions of Canada. However, this would cross sectors of land whose boundaries were still being contested by the Americans and the British)

Oregon Trail

This was the trail that settlers took to go to Oregon. It consisted of families in 10 to 20 wagons who traveled for 6 months.

mandate

an official order or commission to do something

Harriet Beecher Stowe

...

George Fitzburgh

...

John Brown

...

apologists

...

Free-Soil Party

...

Republican Party

...

border ruffians

...

Constitutional Union Party

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Confederate States of America

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Gadsden Purchase

...

Fugitive Slave Law

...

The Compromise of 1850

...

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

...

Lecompton Constitution

...

Dred Scott v. Sanford

...

Freeport Doctrine

...

Bleeding Kansas

...

Harper's Ferry

...

popular sovereignty

...

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