Sociology (Social Groups and Organizations)

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Social Group

two or more people who identify and interact with one another

Sociologists

These people distinguish between aggregates, categories and groups.

Aggregate

is made up of individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not have a sense of belonging together.

Category

is a collection of people who have similar characteristics.

Primary Groups

refer to groups characterized by cooperative, intimate, longterm, face-to-face relationships.

Secondary Groups

are large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity.

Robert Michels

he was the one who coined the term the "iron law of oligarchy" to refer to the way organizations come to be dominated by a small, self perpetuating elite.

In-Groups

this group is where individuals feel loyalty and command a member's esteem and loyalty.

Out-Groups

this group is where individuals feel antagonism, competition or opposition

Reference Groups

a social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions.

Social Networks

consist of people linked by various social ties

Networking

refers to the conscious use of contacts that people think will be helpful to them, for instance by joinging and belonging to clubs.

formal organizations

organizations that are large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals efficiently.

Utilitarian Organization

this organization is when people join in pursuit of material rewards.

Normative Organizations

this organization is also known as voluntary associations, in which people pursue goals they consider morally worthwhile.

coercive organizations

organizations distinguished by voluntary membership.

Group Dynamics

this is known as how individuals affect groups and groups affect individuals.

Study of Group Dynamics

focuses on group size, diversity, leadership, and conformity.

"Groupthink"

this refers to situations in which a group of people think alike and any suggestions of alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty.

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