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5 Written questions

3 Matching questions

  1. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  2. how far back in time can we trace climate using historical documents?
  3. what is the greenhouse effect?
  1. a ...
  2. b 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
  3. c the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
  2. heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
  3. positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
    ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
  4. > 400,000 years
  5. weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"

5 True/False questions

  1. what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?...


  2. what is albedo?forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.


  3. can you figure out why O18 increases (relative to O16) in the tests of foraminifera during cold intervals, but decreases (relative to O16) during cold intervals in water samples from ice cores?every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records


  4. the climate systemincludes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe


  5. what are some climate proxies?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data


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