5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- what is albedo?
- what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?
- how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
- what is the difference between weather and climate?
- at what end of the electromagnetic spectrum does one find higher energy wavelengths, and at what end are the lower energy waves?
- a weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"
- b ...
- c the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent
- d plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
- e 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
5 Multiple choice questions
- produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
- forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.
- > 400,000 years
- the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
5 True/False questions
what was the purpose of the Ocean Drilling Program? → ...
what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval? → heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
what are aerosols? how might they influence climate? → tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors
the climate system → includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
how do we know there has been a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution? → > 400,000 years