5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- positive-feedback mechanisms
- how far back in time can we trace climate using historical documents?
- how far back can we trace temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration using ice core data?
- what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?
- what are some climate proxies?
- a > 400,000 years
- b (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
(2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
(3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
(4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
(5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
- c plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots
- d positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
- e ...
5 Multiple choice questions
- weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"
- produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
- heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).
5 True/False questions
what is the greenhouse effect? → the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
can you figure out why O18 increases (relative to O16) in the tests of foraminifera during cold intervals, but decreases (relative to O16) during cold intervals in water samples from ice cores? → in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
what is albedo? → includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
the climate system → includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes? → highest its ever been