5 Written questions
4 Matching questions
- what are aerosols? how might they influence climate?
- how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from?
- what isotopes form what part of the foraminifera test composition can be used to tell us about past ice sheet volume changes, and ALSO about past changes in ocean water temperature?
- how are tree rings used to tell us about past climate change?
- a changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
- b ...
- c tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors
- d every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
5 Multiple choice questions
- the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
- produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
- the atmosphere warms the planet and makes Earth livable; the important role it plays in heating earth's surface is called the greenhouse effect: this energy heats the air and increases the rate at which it radiates energy, both out to space and back; think of short-wave UV coming in, long-wave radiation going back up from the surface as heat, these waves are absorbed by greenhouse gases, including CO2, methane, and others). We are most concerned about CO2 because we are adding it to the atmosphere in the greatest amounts, and it accumulates (does not dissipate for hundreds of years)owards Earth;
- positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
5 True/False questions
what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing? → ...
what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval? → foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
what is the composition of foraminifera shells (or tests)? → foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
How do CO2 levels today compare with those of the last 400,000 years? → highest its ever been
the climate system → the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent