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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. how far back can we trace temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration using ice core data?
  2. how do we know that CO2 is coming primarily from fossils?
  3. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  4. what are some climate proxies?
  1. a ...
  2. b (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
  3. c > 400,000 years
  4. d 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors
  2. ...
  3. positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
    ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
  4. foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
  5. weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"

5 True/False questions

  1. how do we know there has been a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution?> 400,000 years

          

  2. what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots

          

  3. what has a higher albedo, ice or land?the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent

          

  4. what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?...

          

  5. what was the purpose of the Ocean Drilling Program?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

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