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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. how are tree rings used to tell us about past climate change?
  2. How do CO2 levels today compare with those of the last 400,000 years?
  3. can you figure out why O18 increases (relative to O16) in the tests of foraminifera during cold intervals, but decreases (relative to O16) during cold intervals in water samples from ice cores?
  4. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  5. negative-feedback mechanisms
  1. a 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
  2. b in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
  3. c produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
    ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
  4. d highest its ever been
  5. e every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
  2. includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe
  3. (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
  4. ice
  5. > 400,000 years

5 True/False questions

  1. what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval?heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).

          

  2. what was the purpose of the Ocean Drilling Program?...

          

  3. what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?...

          

  4. how do we know that CO2 is coming primarily from fossils?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

  5. what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?plate tectonics, variations in earth's orbit involving shape, obliquity and precession, volcanic activity and changes in sun's output associated with sunspots

          

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