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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. negative-feedback mechanisms
  2. what are some of the consequences of climate change- which we are already seeing?
  3. the climate system
  4. how are tree rings used to tell us about past climate change?
  5. how do pollen grains tell us about past climate?
  1. a by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable
  2. b hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
    (1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
    (2) a probable rise in sea level
    (3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
    (4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
  3. c produce results that are the opposite of the initial change and tend to offset it
    ex: the negative effect that increased cloud cover has on the amount of solar energy available to hear the atmosphere
  4. d every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
  5. e includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. ...
  2. positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
    ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
  3. > 400,000 years
  4. weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"
  5. (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

5 True/False Questions

  1. what causes air masses to move from place to place?ice

          

  2. what has a higher albedo, ice or land?ice

          

  3. what is the composition of foraminifera shells (or tests)?foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change

          

  4. what are aerosols? how might they influence climate?...

          

  5. what are other, natural sources of CO2 and aerosols?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

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