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Chapter 21- Global Climate Change Test

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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
  2. how do we know what the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was during past glacial and interglacial cycles? where do these samples come from?
  3. trophospheric ozone
  4. how do we know that CO2 is coming primarily from fossils?
  5. what heavy isotope changes relative to what light isotope in sea water, as ice sheets get larger during a glacial interval?
  1. a ...
  2. b ozone near the earth's surface (the troposphere is the lowest ~12 km of the atmosphere) - and affects us adversely when levels get to high. This is because ozone (O3) is a strong oxidizer. Tropospheric ozone is created from an interaction between sunlight and pollutants such as nitrous and sulfur oxides - in our area, most of these pollutants come from combustion in vehicles burning fossil fuels. But, a certain (regulated) amount is emitted from power plants as well. Ozone alerts (or Ozone action days) in Dallas are days when tropospheric ozone concentrations are higher than acceptable for good health. These are nearly always during the summer months.
  3. c changes in carbon dioxide and methane are linked to fluctuating temperatures. the cores also include atmospheric fallous such as wind-blown dust, volcanic ash and modern day pollution
  4. d 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
  5. e heavy isotope increases relative to light isotope at cooler temperatures (O18/O16 goes up).

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. ...
  2. ...
  3. every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
  4. foraminifera is a skeleton made of CaCO3 (same as calcite) oxygen isotope rations depend upon water temp; these tiny, single celled organisms are sensitive to even small fluctuations in temperature; seafloor sedimetns containing fossils such as this are useful recorders of climate change
  5. includes atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere and cryosphere; these interact and involve exchanges of energy and moisture among the spheres- resulting in temperature and precipitation patterns (climate) around the globe

5 True/False Questions

  1. what is the difference between weather and climate?weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place; climate is a description of aggregate weather conditions based on observations over many decades; climate is often defined as "average weather"

          

  2. what are some climate proxies?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

  3. how far back can we trace temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration using ice core data?...

          

  4. how do pollen grains tell us about past climate?by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable

          

  5. how far back in time can we trace climate using historical documents?(1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
    (2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
    (3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
    (4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
    (5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data

          

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