5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- what causes air masses to move from place to place?
- How do CO2 levels today compare with those of the last 400,000 years?
- how much has the average temperature of the earth increased over the last 100 years? would this increase have been greater or lesser at high latitudes?
- at higher energy, do waves have a shorter or longer wavelength?
- how do we know there has been a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 since the industrial revolution?
- a the hotter the radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum raidation
- b 1 degree Celsius rise in average temperature; increase greater at high latitudes- but the 10 warmest years have been during the past 15 years!
- c 30% higher than highest level over at least the last 650,000 years
- d ...
- e highest its ever been
5 Multiple choice questions
- hard to predict specific regional changes because increased levels of CO2 but consequences include:
(1) altering the distribution of the world's water resources
(2) a probable rise in sea level
(3) a greater intensity of tropical cyclones
(4) changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice and permafrost
- tiny, often microscopic, liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the air. Aerosols act directly by reflecting sunlight back to space and indirectly by making clouds "brighter" reflectors
- in ice, O18 increases relative to O16 during warm intervals. IN forarms, O18 decreases relative to O16 during warm intervals. Ice cores go back more than 400,000 years and record oxygen isotopes (T), atmospheric CO2 and methane in trapped air bubbles. The O isotope record form forarms "mirrors" that from glacial ice.
- forms at ~ 20 - 30 km above Earth's surface, and is a protective layer that helps to filter out UV radiation by absorbing some of its energy. Life on planet Earth needs this because too much UV at Earth's surface (where we all live) can be harmful to cell function.
- every year, trees add a layer of new wood under the bark; characteristics of each tree ring such as size and density reflect the environmental conditions (especially climate); the age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings --> ring chronologies are used to reconstruct climate variations within a region for spans of thousands of years prior to human historical records
5 True/False questions
how do pollen grains tell us about past climate? → by analyzing pollen from accurately dated sediments, it is possible to obtain high-resolution records of vegetational changes in an area because pollen and spores are parts of life cycles of many plants and are easily identifiable
positive-feedback mechanisms → positive feedbacks are changes that reinforce the initial change
ex: warmer surface temperatures can cause an increase in evaporation, which further increases temperature as the additional water vapor absorbs more radiation emitted by Earth
the climate system → the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent
how far back in time can we trace climate using historical documents? → (1) seafloor sediments- contain remains of organisms that one lived near sea surface; useful recorders of worldwide climate change
(2) oxygen isotope analysis- based on precise measurement of the ratio bt 2 isotopes of oxygen; O^16 is most common and the heavier O^18: O^18/O^16 ratio in shells of microorganisms- past temperatures
(3) climate change recorded in glacial ice
(4) tree rings- archives of environmental history
(5)fossil pollen, corals, historical data
what is the greenhouse effect? → the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by a surface; thus the albedo for Earth as a whole is 30 percent