the ability to get others to do what you want them to do. Hard power = military. Soft= ability to get actors to want to do what you want them to do. Economic power. Must be "fungible", aka changable/adaptable
numerous arenas in which power can be held, but not one system dominate over the other. States are not the only agents that can have power. Ex: NGOs, terrorist orginizations
international system that's characterized by one state holding most of the power in the system. Imperalistic, negative connotation. Dominates the IR system
Wohforth argues that this system enhances the process for peace because a major source of conflict is eliminated in this system. Maximizes peace and stability by eliminating conflict between great powers. Can use its global position to create peace in the IR world
Waltz Most conducive to peace because both sides are assuming that the other side does not want to go to war historically, great power wars occur less frequently, but too many powers can lead to conflict. Easier to instill discipline and easier to detect threats from one other actors instead of multiple.
Singer & Deutsch: The odds are greater that more powers will see it in their best interest to help stop conflict, states will want to form alliances and promote deterrence rather than go to war. Better to spend resources on defense
Haas: no current leader. power exists in many different places and is held by many different kinds of actors
Thucydides, is there room for morality and justice in IP?
No, wanting to rule is natural, the struggle for power is natural and it is not something we should feel bad about."the strong do whatever they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept" there is a balance of power, when one side increases their power, it threatens the othes.
Post cold war optimists: Bush "radical departure"
historical perception, a day rich with promise and history "communism is dead" "day of the dictator is over", the world is changing according to American policies, democracies and capitalism
anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics, the idea of self-help is a constructed norm, can evolve to a better, more progressive state
Republican Liberalism, liberal democracies are the most peaceful type of governments and they rarely fight one another. Democratic peace theory (DPT), not that democracies don't fight, but they don't fight with each other. Only works when states have liberal principles, liberal interests and liberal republican states
"end of history" : end of mankind's ideological evolution. Universalization of western liberal democracy. Reached the pinnacle, no more search. Jumped out of history. But the rest of the 3rd world remains very much mired in history. Victory still not complete here, conflict and war should be expected. Rise in ethnic violence, but we will only see it in those countries still in history.
IR pessamists: Ghemawat
forces -- most of which enable connectivity and collaboration at a distance -- are "flattening" the Earth and leveling a playing field of global competitiveness, the likes of which the world has never before seen.
IR pessamists: Barber
Jihad= retribilization of the world, the breaking down into ever smaller groups. Not just tradition, but nationalist, using violence to establish identity, being at war with someone, who you are at war with defines who you are
Mcworld= globalization, everyone dresses the same, eats the same, etc.
Neither of these is democratic necessarily.
IR Pessamists; Huntington
"clash of civilizations" Civilization = highest level of common identity. Conflict is going to arise primarily along the boarders, the bloodiest conflicts are likely to occur in Latin America, Orthodox Slavic Christianity world
Civilizations can be fluid, changing