shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss
Hypovolemic Shock Compensation
Liver and spleen add to the blood volume by disgorging stored RBCs and Plasma
Hypovolemic Shock RAAS
RAAS compensates for hypovolemic shock by stimulating ALDOSTERONE release, which RETAINS NA+ and WATER to increase blood volume.
RAAS > Aldosterone > ↑ Na+ and H20 > ↑ Blood Volume
Low urine output
Can be caused by shock via decreasing perfusion to the kidneys
↓ perfusion to kidneys
↓ Tissue perfusion as a result of severe infection and sepsis.
- Follows infection
More sever than other forms of shock bc it is sudden, rapid systemic VASODILATION.
Follows widespread HYPERSENSITIVITY reaction
Over-stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
Under-stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
↑ PSNS -- or -- ↓SNS
serious, life-threatening medical condition defined as an inadequate perfusion of tissues which is insufficient to meet cellular metabolic needs.
Neurogenic shock is the rarest form of shock. It is caused by trauma to the spinal cord resulting in the sudden loss of autonomic and motor reflexes below the injury level. Without stimulation by sympathetic nervous system the vessel walls relax uncontrollably, resulting in a sudden decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, leading to vasodilation and hypotension
shock exists because of the severe reduction in effective circulating blood volume caused by sequestration of blood and other fluids in the vascular system and their withdrawal from the circulating blood. Is the classical shock of traumatic injury, burns, uterine prolapse, extensive surgery.
Teacher: "Example: Spinal nerve impulse causing vasodilation"
Follows parasympathetic stimulation
Follows major burns
Lose lots of volume via burns/bleed out
Impaired perfusion is the primary mechanism that causes organ injury.
A spiral that occurs following uncontrolled shock
Burns 1st Degree
Outer layer but not all the way through.
Skin = red.
Burns 2nd Degree
1st layer of skin burnt through
second layer of skin (dermis) partially burnt
Blisters, intense redness, splotchy
Burns 3rd Degree
All layers of skin and cause perm. tissue dmg.
Fat, muscle, and bone may be affected.
Charred black or dry white.
Smoke inhalation may accompany burn: difficult inhale/exhale, and CO poisoning.
hot grease, boiling water
cigarette, curling iron
flammable liquid, gasoline
direct contact with high and low voltage current
corrosive agent - think acid
heat injury - overheating
"Most life threatening injury"
caused by prolonged exposure to high temperatures. is is a medical emergency. the body is unable to eliminate the excess heat, and internal body temp. rises to/over 150 degrees
painful muscle spasms which usually affect arms, legs, or stomach. Sweating depletes the bodies salt and moisture.
Weakness, fatigue, nausea, headache
extra cells, ↑ number
abnormality of development
Reversible placement of one mature cell type with another cell type.
is commonly caused by disuse
↑ mitotic index (proliferate faster) (bunnies)
Deep, rapid respirations
Occurs in metabolic acidosis to ↓ CO2 and thereby reduce carbonic acid.
metabolic acidosis > rapid resp > ↓ CO2 > ↓ carbonic acid
males = females
no skipped generations
goes to 1/2 of their offspring
Stages of Cancer
Carcinoma in situ: preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors (e.g. cervical)
Stage 1 - cancer formed
Stage 2 - lymph nodes
Stage 3 - spread to regional structures
Stage 4 - distant metastasis
Carcinoma in situ
Preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors
Stage 1 Cancer
Cancer is formed - what stage?
Stage 2 Cancer
Cancer spread to lymph nodes - what stage?
Stage 3 Cancer
Cancer spread to regional structures - what stage?
Stage 4 Cancer
Cancer shows distant metastasis - what stage?
Thymus is the central lymphoid organ for what type of cell?
Proportion of the population affected by a disease at a specific point in time
Number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period of time (usually one year)
Exudate: clear, watery
Exudate: clear, watery fluids mixed with blood
Exudate: PUS - present during bacterial infection
impulses arising from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli
Systemic Lupus Erythematous
is an autoimmune disease
Conductive Hearing Loss
occurs when a change in the outer or middle ear impairs sound from being conducted from the outer to inner ear.
Confusion, irritability, depression, headache, seizures
Hypotension, fever, tachycardia
Absent bowel sounds, skeletal muscle weakness, bradycardia
Depression, confusion, irritability, increased reflexes, tetany
Fatigue, weakness, kidney stones, varying degrees of heart block
via Complication of mastoiditis
inflammation of the mastoid process or bone
is an Opportunistic Infection
Relates to a ↓ immune system
infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection
CNS manifestation of tuberculosis
inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
Mosquito-borne Viral infection
Tick-borne bacterial infection
Involves psychotic episodes
↑ levels of Euphoria
Unremitting feeling of sadness and despair
Intensive autonomic arousal including:
Take home: ______ disorder affects body, not just in your head
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
repetitive intrusive thoughts
ex. wash hands over and over
excessive growth hormone caused by pituitary gland
Hyper-secretion of adreno-cortico-tropic hormone (ACTH)
Cutaneous edema often associated with Thyroid disease
Tumor of the adrenal medulla
Distinguishing characteristic of Inflammatory Exudates
Nondisjunction of X chromosome by mother
Mating of persons having common family relations
wheezing in and out, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, tachypnea
passage of fluid and solid particles into the lungs
Inflammatory obstruction of small airways
Excessive amount of connective tissue in the lung
Abnormal dilation of the bronchi
often caused by venous stasis and hypercoaguability during bed rest - are risk factors.
Embolus forms in DVT then dislodges and gets stuck in pulmonary system
a chronic progressive anemia of older adults noun Ex. thought to result from a LACK OF INTRINSIC FACTOR (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)
commonly caused by Epstein bar virus
Sympathetic Nervous System
↑ Cardiac Contractility
↑ Heart Rate
Parasympathetic Nervous System
↓ Cardiac Contractility
↓ Heart Rate
Right Sided Heart Failure
Jugular vein distension, Hepatosplenomegaly, Ascites, Edema, Pulmonary HPT
or pulmonary heart disease is enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs.
140/90 or Greater
Amount of blood pumped out of left ventricle to the aorta.
HR x Stroke Volume = Cardiac Output
Typically presents with DOE (Dyspnea on Exertion)
Main CM is bronchoconstriction, allergies frequently involved with ↑ IgE
↓ arterial Oxygenation with 5 gms unoxygenated HgB
UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)
Burning on urination, urgency
In elderly may include:
Confusion, poorly localized abdominal discomfort
Ex. Renal Hypoperfusion
Ex. Acute Tubular Necrosis
Ex. Prostatic Hypertrophy
- Post kidney obstruction, backing things up into kidney
↑ 5 mEq/L
Treatment: glucose and insulin used to treat bc insulin transports glucose into the cell and also carries potassium with it.
Insulin, glucose, potassium
(for the purpose of movement into the cell regarding Hyperkalemia)
Ringworm - fungal infection of skin
elevated, firm circumscribed area < 1cm
Skin disease characterized by red patches, covered with silver-white scales usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, and lower back, but rarely on the face.
A chronic autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells.
a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust
precursor to SCC
erythematous with light scale. can become thick and crusted
see intraepidermal atypia over sun-damaged dermis
Wiki: is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin
Psoriasis, Seborrheic and Actinic Keratoses
From SG, line 56B - kinda clueless here.
"elevated, firm, and rough lesion with flat top surface greater than 1 cm."
Flat circumscribed area
allergic rxn accoc.
Elevated irregular shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, with variable diameters.
elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, < 1cm
elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, < 1cm
resulting from unhydrolyzed lactose
i.e., lactose intolerance
may be defined as inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Inflamm response to GERD
Inflammation develops in crypts of Lieberkuhn in the large intestine
Alterations in IgG found in this disorder.
Autoimmune Inflam response.
systemic: fatigue, fever, weakness
"synovitis and bone marrow inflammation"
mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.
↑ uric acid
↑ risk for renal calculi
are produced in plasma cells
Ex. holding or putting thumb in mouth after hitting it with a hammer
usually from an arterial bleed
usually caused by HPT
Acute Rheumatic Fever
develops as a sequel to strep throat
Aortic Semilunar Valve Failure
fails to close completely - some of the ejected blood flows back into left ventricle during diastole > results in ↓ cardiac output
desynchronized, low-voltage, fast activity that occurs about every 90 minutes
Active Acquired Immunity
produced by individual after either natural exposure to Ag or after immunization
After a person is exposed to most Ag it takes _____ days before an Ab can be detected in the circulation
Fracture at a site of preexisting bone abnormality, usually by a force that would not normally cause a fracture
Lack of insulin, often due to AI destruciton of the islets of langerhorn
DM I and II
Both lead to hyperglycemia adn as glucose spills into urine > polyuria
lack of ADH > polyuria and hypernatremia
Chronic AI disease - not reversible
Bacterial infection spread by air droplet from person to person
Spinal Cord Injury
The physical level of the injury indicates the CMs
Older adults most at risk from minor trauma
sudden apparent arousal in which a chile expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while in a sleep state
Passive Innate Immunity
Passed from mother to fetus
Continues to provide immunity during first months of life
mucous membranes are dry
Poor skin turgor
pulse is weak