Medterm Chapter 10

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meninges

three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord

axon

microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

plexus

a large, interlacing network of nerves

dendrite

branching fiber that is first part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse

myelin sheath

protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

oligodendroglia

glial cell that produces myelin

cerebral cortex

outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter

dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting brain and spinal cord

synapse

space, juncture through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from neuron to neuron

medulla oblangata

above spinal cord, controls breathing, heartbeat and size of blood vessels. nerve fibers cross

hypothalamus

beneath thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature and pituitary gland secretions

sensory nerve

carries messages toward the brain from receptors

parenchymal cell

essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron

pia mater

innermost meningeal membrane

gyri

elevations in cerebral cortex

neurotransmitter

acetylcholine is an example of this chemical released into a synapse

subarachnoid space

contains cerebrospinal fluid

intrathecal

pertaining to inside spinal cord

glioma

cancer starting in brain/spine

myelogram

x-ray of the spinal cord

subdural hematoma

brain injury where blood gathers between dura and arachnoid

meningioma

tumor of meninges

paresthesias

abnormality of sensation

bradykinesia

slow movement

hyperesthesia

increased nervous sensation

nacrolepsy

seizure of sleep

syncope

fainting

causalgia

burning pain

apraxia

no coordination

hemiparesis

slight paralysis in half of the body

multiple sclerosis

destruction of myelin sheath; replacement by plaques of hard scar tissue

epilepsy

sudden, transient disturbances of brian function marked by seizures

myasthenia gravis

loss of muscle strength; breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter

parkinson disease

Degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness (mask-like facial expression); dopamine is deficient in the brain.

Alzheimer disease

Deterioration of mental capacity (dementia) beginning in middle age; cerebral cortex atrophy, microscopic neurofibrillary tangles

bell palsy

unilateral facial paralysis

pyogenic meningitis

bacterial inflammation of meninges and subarachnoid Cerebral SPinal Fluid

tourette syndrome

neurological disorder marked by involuntary, spasmodic, twitching, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words

shingles

viral disease affecting peripheral nerves

cerebral embolus

a clot blocks an artery leading to the brain and blocks blood flow

aura

peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms

palliative

relieving but not curing

transient ischemic attack

interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum

occlusion

blockage

dopamine

neurotransmitter

glioblastoma multiforme

malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells

absence seizure

Minor form of epileptic seizure

tonic-clonic seizure

Major convulsive epileptic seizure.

acetycholine

neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of the nerve cells

anencephaly

condition of absence of a brain

apraxia

movements and behavior are not purposeful

astrocyte

type of glial cell

ataxia

lack of muscle coordination

bradykinesia

slow movement

cerebellum

posterior part of the brain; responsible for maintaining balance

cerebrum

largest part of the brain

comatose

state of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused

glioma

malignant brain tumor

gyri

elevations on the surface of the cerebral cortex

hypothalamus

part of the brain that controls the secretions of the pituitary gland

leptomeningitis

benign tumor of the membranes around the brain

meningitis

inflammation of membranes around the brain

myelinsheath

fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the axon of a nerve cell

neurasthenia

nervous exhaustion; lack of nerve strength

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower part of the body

stroma

the connective and framework tissue of any organ

syncopal

pertaining to fainting

synapse

the space through which a nerve impulse passes from one nerve cell to another

aura

peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms

cerebral angiography

X-ray record of blood vessels within the brain

cerebral hemorrhage

breakage of a blood vessel within the brain

cerebral palsy

paralysis and loss of muscular coordination caused by brain damage in the perinatal period

dementia

mental decline and deterioration

dopamine

type of neurotransmitter (deficient in Parkinson's disease)

embolus

a floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocking a blood vessel

gait

manner of walking

glioblastoma multiforme

malignant brain tumor

hydrocephalus

collection of fluid in the ventricles of the brain

Multiple Sclerosis

demyelination of tissue around the axons of CNS neurons

myasthenia gravis

relapsing weakness of skeletal muscles (no muscle strength); autoimmune condition

palliative

relieving symptoms, but not curing

Parkinson Disease

degeneration of nerves in the brain; occuring in later life and leading to tremors, bradykinesia

Spina bifida

congenital defect of spinal column with herniation of the spinal cord and meninges

tonic-clonic

major compulsive epileptic seizure

Tourette Syndrome

involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable utterances

transient ischemia attack

mini-stroke

neurorrhapy

nerve suture

motor nerve

carries messages away from CNS to muscles and organs

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter - chemical released at ends of some nerve cells

meningioma

tumor of meninges

hyperkinesis

excessive movement

paresis

slight paralysis

demyelination

myelin sheath of neurons is damaged

paresthesia

abnormal sensation

intrathecal

within the meninges

cuada equina

tail end of the spinal cord

glial

pertaining to supportive cells of the nervous system

Thalamus

a part of the brain that serves as a relay station for impulses

dysphasia

difficult speech

anesthesia

condition of insensitivty to pain

hemiparesis

paralysis of right or left side of the body

radiculitis

inflammation of a spinal nerve root

neuropathy

disease of a nerve

vagotomy

incision of the vagus nerve

ataxia

lack of muscle coordination

dysesthesia

condition of painful nervous sensations

gioblastoma

tumor of immature brain cells (glia)

electroencephalogram

electrical record of the brain

nerve

macroscopic structure consisting of axons and dendrites in bundle-like strands

pons

part of the brain meaning bridge

aneurysm

abnormal widening of a blood vessel

MRI

Magnetic and radiowaves used to create images

Glial tissue of the brain

What is the brain parencyma?

cerebellar

pertaining to the cerebellum

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord and is located within the ventricles of the brain

cerebral cortex

the outer region (gray matter) of the cerebrum

subdural hematoma

collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)

epidural hematoma

collection of blood above the dura mater

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

encephalopathy

any disease of the brain

glial cells

supportive and connective cells of the nervous system (important in formation of myelin, transport of materials to neurons, and maintenance of cellular environment)

leptomeningitis

inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane

meningeal

pertaining to the meninges

meningomyelocele

hernia of the meninges and spinal cord

myelogram

record / x-ray of spinal cord

myoneural

pertaining to muscle and nerve

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

polyneuritis

inflammation of many spinal nerves, causing paralysis, pain, wasting of muscles. Gullain-Barre syndrome is an example

cerebellopontine

pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons

radiculopathy

disease of the spinal nerve roots

thalamic

pertaining to the thalamus

intrathecal injection

placement of substances into the subarachnoid space

vagal

pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial ) nerve

analgesia

condition of no pain, usually accompanied by sedation w/o loss of consicousness

hypalgesia

diminished sensation to pain

neuralgia

nerve pain

cephalgia

headache (head pain)

causalgia

burning sensation of pain (in the skin), usually follwoing injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve.

comatose

In a state of coma (profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to trauma, disease, or action of ingested toxic substance)

anesthesia

condition of no nervous sensation

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli

akinetic

pertaining to w/o movement

nacrolepsy

sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizure of sleep)

dyslexia

disorder of reading, writing, or learning (despite the ability to see and recognize letters)

aphasia

condition of inability to speak

hemiplegia

paralysis in half of the body

paraplegia

paralysis in the lower portion of the body

quadriplegia

paralysis of all 4 limbs of the body

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