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renal/true capsule

internal capsule of kidney

renal fascia

external capsule of kidney

pyramids

8-18 structures with collecting ducts that constitute medulla of kidney

renal pelvis

collects urine and is located in renal sinus of cavity of kidney

renal column

part of cortex between pyramids

renal artery

circulates dirty blood (w/ metabolic waste) to kidney

renal vein

circulates cleansed blood from kidney

ureter

drain urine from kidneys to bladder

interlobar artery

give rise to afferent arteriole

afferent arteriole

circulates blood to glomerulus

golmerular capillaries

capillaries enclosed in Bowman's capsule/renal corpuscle

efferent arteriole

circulates blood away from glomerulus

peritubular capillary network

capillaries in contact with the kidney tubule

interlobar vein

drains peritubular capillary network

Bowman's capsule/renal corpuscle

proximal end of kidney tubule containing the glomerulus

Henle's loop

long loop into medulla between proximal and distal convoluted portions of kidney tubule

distal convoluted tubule

adjacent to the collecting duct

collecting duct

in pyramids and not part of the kidney tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

adjacent to Bowman's capsule

ureteral orifices

openings where ureter opens into posterior wall of bladder

trigone

internal triangular area in bladder from ureteral openings to urethra

rugae

internal folds in wall of bladder; most apparent when bladder is empty

detrusor muscle

three layers of smooth muscle in wall of bladder

urethral canal

lumen of urethra that drains urine from bladder in male and female, and semen from reproductive system in male

int. and ext. urethral sphincters

circular bands of muscle that close off the urethral canal

urethra

tubular structure from bladder to outside of body

filtration

water and most solutes in blood plasma move across wall of glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule and then into the renal tubule; driving force is blood pressure

tubular reabsorption

return of 99% of filtered water and many useful solutes from renal tubules into peritubular capillary network

tubular secretion

nitrogenous waste (urea), drugs, and ions from blood into distal renal tubules; allows someone to be tested for drug use

spermatic cord

includes ductus (vas) deferens, artery, vein, lymphatics, and nerves

inguinal canal

allows spermatic cord to extend from body cavity to scrotum (opening)

ductus (vas) deferens

transports semen containing sperm cells from testes to ejaculatory duct

efferent ducts

vas efferentia; drain semen from rete testes

inguinal hernia

tear in inguinal canal

kidney

regulation of pH, blood volume, and water regulation; removal of waste products from blood

kidney stone

rock like substance that starts in pelvis of kidney and travels down ureters and get stuck; severe pain w/ pink pee

urinary system

removal of urine

bladder

starts working at involuntary level until we train it once we are older

nephron

100,000 per kidney; basic unit of function of kidney; 2 kinds, juxtamedullary and cortical

erection

caused by hydrostatic pressure of blood or nervous response

circumcision

removal of prepuce/foreskin

conception/fertilization

egg penetrated by sperm cell

rete testis

interconnected tubules between straight ducts and efferent ducts

straight ducts

between seminiferous tubules and rete testis

seminiferous tubules

sites of sperm cell production

tunica albuginea

tough external fibrous coat of testis

septum

partition between the 200-300 lobules containing seminiferous tubules

lobules

contain seminiferous tubules

spermatogenesis

meiotic production of sperm/spermatozoa; 23 chromosomes-haploid

meiosis

reduction division process involved in spermatogenesis

head of sperm

contains the nucleus

tail of sperm

long whip-like flagellum

acrosome of sperm

protects the end of the head

nucleus of sperm

contains haploid set of 23 chromosomes in sperm

seminal vesicle

male sex gland duct that contribute to the ejaculatory duct

ampulla of ductus (vas) deferens

enlargement of the structure near the ejaculatory duct; expansion of ductus (vas) deferens

bulbourethral gland

Cowper's gland; smallest and most distal of male sex glands

ejaculatory duct

consist of union of ducts of seminal vesicles and ductus deferens

corpus spongiosum

longitudinal column of tissue containing the male urethra

corpus cavernosum

the two upper longitudinal columns of tissue in the penis

prostatic urethra

urethra surrounded by prostate

membranous urethra

between prostatic and spongy urethra

spongy urethra

urethra that extends the length of the penis

corona of glans penis

enlarged part of glans penis

external urethral meatus

terminal opening of urethra

glans penis

the "head" of the penis

foreskin/prepuce

retractable covering of glans penis removed in circumcision

hilum

where arteries, veins, lymphatics, and nerves either enter or exit from ovary

germinal epithelium

external cell layer of the ovary

developing follicle

site of development of an egg/secondary oocyte

ovulation of egg

usually on 14th day of 28 day menstrual cycle

corpus luteum

secretes the hormone progesterone; yellowish mass

oogenesis

meiotic production of eggs; 1n=23 chromosomes=haploid

reproductive organs

function to produce eggs/sperm (gametes), produce hormones, and bond males and females

atresia

change in a follicle that renders it nonfunctional

menopause

phase women go through that makes them unable to produce fertilized oocytes

functions of vagina

birth canal, outlet for menstrual fluid, reproductive organ that receives the penis

parturition

birth

primary sex characteristics

reproductive organs

secondary sex characteristics

developed in puberty; skin texture, body shape, hair

autonomic nervous system

keeps urine and semen separate in males because both flow through urethra

fimbriae

finger like projections from end of uterine tube

infundibulum

expanded part of uterine tube to which fimbriae are attached

ampulla

slightly dialated part of uterine tube

fallopian tube

uterine tube/oviduct; site of fertilization; where egg meets sperm

isthmus

narrowing of uterine tube at its junction with uterus

fundus

elevated part of uterus between the uterine tubes; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus

body of uterus

between the fundus and cervix of uterus; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus

cervix

inferior outlet of uterus; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus

perimetrium of uterus

external peritoneal investment; histological component; covers

myometrium of uterus

middle smooth muscle; histological component; labor contractions

endometrium of uterus

internal layer= lining shed during menstrual cycle; histological component

vulva

external genitalia of female mons pubis

clitoris

homologous to penis of male

labia majora

external folds of vulva; homologous to scrotum of male

labia minora

internal folds of vulva

vaginal orifice

entrance to copulatory organ and birth canal; exit for menstrual flow

hymen

partially covers vaginal orifice

mons pubis

anterior to pubic symphysis with growth of pubic hair

anus

part of digestive system

external urethral orifice

part of urinary system

mammary gland

can be historically associated to a milk line that has accumulated in pectoral region over time

lobule with alveoli

site of milk production

parts of milk drainage system

mammary duct, lactiferous sinus, and lactiferous duct

nipple

surrounded by pigmented areola

adipose tissue

part of substance and bulk of mammary gland; size of breast dependent on this

pituitary gland

hypophysis; master endocrine gland; attached to hypothalamus

thyroid

lobes on both sides of thyroid cartilage

parathyroid glands

embedded in the thyroid gland

thymus gland

superior to heart; regresses in size with age; primary lymphatic organ

adrenal gland

superior to each kidney; suprarenal gland

ovaries

egg and hormone production

testes

sperm and hormone production

pancreas

produces insulin in islets of Langerhans

retroperitoneal

location of kidneys; posterior to peritoneum

adipose/fatty capsule

middle capsule of kidney

8 to 18

number of pyramids per human kidney; makes it multilobar

1

number of pyramids per cat kidney; makes it unilobar

cortex and medulla

regions of kidney

about 1 million

number of nephrons in each kidney

cortical nephrons

80-85%

juxtamedullary nephrons

15-20%

renal sinus/cavity

location of renal pelvis in kidney

collection of urine

function of renal pelvis

major and minor calyces

subdivisions of renal pelvis

dialysis

machine treatment protocol in cases of kidney failure

micturition

controlled release of urine from bladder; controlled by sphincter muscles around wall of urethra

abdominal cavity near kidneys

where the testes begin development in a male

7th month of development

when the testes descend from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum

inguinal canal

between abdominal cavity and scrotal sac through which testes descend

cryptorchidism

failure of one or more testes to descend through inguinal canal

scrotum

sac-like extension of the body wall containing testes

external/median raphe

external edidence that scrotal sac represents fused halves

function of scrotum

provides lower temperature environment for sperm than body cavity

spermatogenesis by meiosis

sperm cell production

300 million

number of sperm produced per day in some males

cause of erection

nervous response to appropriate stimuli

emission

release of a small quantity of semen prior to ejaculation

ejaculation

powerful surge of semen from the urethra by muscle contractions

orgasm

pleasurable sensation that accompanies ejaculation

interstitial cells

Leydig cells; between the seminiferous tubules; cells in testes that produce testosterone

puberty

development of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive maturity

sex drive

urge to achieve sexual gratification

vasectomy

cutting through the ductus (vas) deferens to prevent ejaculation of semen

semen

seminal fluid; mixture of sperm cels/spermatozoa and sex gland secretions

abdominal cavity near kidneys

where ovaries develop in female

follicle in ovary

specific site of oogenesis/egg production

fallopian tube

site of fertilization; uterine tube

release of 2nd polar body

initial result of a sperm cell penetrating a secondary oocyte

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