Nutrition chapter one

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features of a chronic disease include all of the following except

it produces sharp pains

characteristics of an acute disease include all of the following except

it progresses slowly

what is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat

taste

All of the following are results of making poor food choices except

when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health

a child who developed a strong dislike of noodle soup after consuming some when she was sick with the flu is an example of a food-related

negative association

a parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as

positive association

a person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on

habit

which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association

an elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because it is a child's food

the motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his

values

A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice most likely based on

emotional comfort

excluding fast food establishments, approximately who percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis

60%

terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except

phytonutritional food

what is the term that defines foods that contain nonnutrient substances who known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the food's nutrients

functional foods

nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as

phytochemicals

the complete listing of a persons digestive tract is renewed approximately every

3-5 days

by chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amount in most foods

water

approximately how much water (lbs) would be found in a 120-lb person

72

which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients

fiber

a nutrient needed by the body and that must be supplemented by foods is termed

essential nutrient

all of the following are classified as macronutrients except

calcium

which of the following is an example of a macronutrient

protein

which of the following is classified as a micronutrient

iron

which of the following is an organic compound

Vitamin C

An essential nutrient is one that cannot be

made in sufficient quantities by the body

which of the following most accurately describes the term organic

substances with carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds

which of the following is an organic nutrient

fat

approximately how many nutrients are considered indispensable in the diet

40

which if the following cannot add fat to the body

inorganic substances

which of the following is an example of micronutrient

Vitamin C

which of the following nutrients does not yield energy during its metabolism

vitamins

how much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (liter) of water 1 degree C

1 kilocalorie

gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy

fats

food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in

kilojoules

international units of energy are expressed in

kilojoules

approximately how many millimeters are contained in a half- cup of milk

120

a normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams

100

a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories, which includes 30g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed to fat

19

A diet provides a total 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet

220

what is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol

755

which of the following nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram

plant fats

which of the following is a result of the metabolism of energy nutrients

energy is released

which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods

they contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two my predominate

in the body, the chemical energy in food can be converted to any of the following except

light energy

when consumed in excess, all of the following can be converted to body fat and stored except

vitamin C

how many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings

13

which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins

inorganic

which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients

some become dissolved in body fluids

how many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings

16

which of the following is not a characteristic of the minerals

unstable to light

overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients

minerals

Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as an

anecdote

the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients it termed

nutritional genomics

what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment

neither the subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group

in the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called the

hypothesis

among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory- based study

the results cannot be applied to human beings

what is the benefit of using controls in an experiment

the subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being given

what is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment

chance variation is ruled out

a clinical trial must involve

human beings as subjects

what is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment

all subjects receive a treatment

in nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as

epidemological studies

You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiment on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently

prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects

overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a

positive correlation

an increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a

negative correlation

before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as

peer review

All of the following sets of values are included in the Dietary Recommended Intakes except

LUT

which of the following is not a set of values within the Dietary Reference Intakes

estimated average allowances

the smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient

requirement

if a group of people consumed an amount of protein equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts

50

a health magazine connected you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amount of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be

the recommended dietary allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people

Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to

assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals

Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the

estimated average requirement

the amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of about 98% of a population is termed the

Recommended Dietary Allowance

The RDA for nutrients are generally

designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people

how are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set

high, to cover virtually all healthy individuals

Which of the following is not a feature of the AI and RDA

the percentage of people covered is known for both values

all of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except

neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people

which of the following is a purpose of both the RDA and AI

setting nutrient goals for individuals

Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, which is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140g of carbohydrate, and 150g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

70g of fat, 156g of protein, 313g of carbohydrate

which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy

because of a margin of safety would result in excess energy intake for a large number of people, the figures are set at the average energy intake

what does the tolerable upper intake level of a nutrient represent

the maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people

what set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance

estimated energy requirement

the percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

what is the AMDR for carbohydrate

45-65%

which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR

50%

what is the AMDR for protein

10-35%

what is the upper range of fat intake in the AMDR

35%

what is the AMDR for fat

20-35%

if a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately hoe many grams of protein would be ingested

219

what is the weight (lbs) of the reference adult male

154

what is the weight (lbs) of the reference adult female

126

all of the following describes features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except

the recommendations also apply to sick people

the Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to

plan and evaluate diets for healthy people

which of the following is used to detect nutrient deficiencies

assessment techniques

as a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals

historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests

which of the following is an anthropometric measurement

body weight

inspection of hair, eyes, skin and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as

physical examination

which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency

laboratory tests

which of the following represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake

declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions, within the body, and overt signs

which of the following would most likely lead to a primary nutrient deficiency

inadequate nutrient intake

what type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient

secondary

a subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that

is in the early stages

which of the following is an overt sign of iron deficiency

headaches

to identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use which of the following parameters

laboratory tests

what entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies

The National Nutrition Monitoring program

the goal of Healthy People is to

set goals for the nation's health over the next 10 years

which of the following does not describe a national trend in eating habits of Americans

we eat more high-fiber foods

the most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except

tuberculosis

of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition

4

which of the following leading causes of death in the US does not bear a relationship to diet

pneumonia and influenza

factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be casual are called

risk factors

which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease

the more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease

Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the US

tobacco

what behavior is the major cause of death in the US

tobacco use

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