APUSH: Civil War - Archangel Expedition

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Border states

States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.

South's advantages in the Civil War

Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.

North's advantages in the Civil War

Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.

Fort Sumter

Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.

Bull Run

At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.

Monitor and the Merrimac

First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor- Union. Merrimac - Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship was the CSS Virginia.

Lee, Jackson

General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.

Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade

Union generals in the Civil War.

Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox

Battle sites of the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.

Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens

Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.

Northern blockade

Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.

Cotton versus Wheat

Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold for large amounts of money. Wheat was mainly raised to feed farmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to grow.

641.Copperheads

Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.

Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham

An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.

Suspension of habeas corpus

Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.

Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad

With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.

Conscription draft riots

The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.

Emancipation Proclamation

September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.

Charles Francis Adams

Minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain from entering the war on the side of the South.

Great Britain: Trent, Alabama, Laird rams, "Continuous Voyage"

A Union frigate stopped the Trent, a British steamer and abducted two Confederate ambassadors aboard it. The Alabama was a British-made vessel and fought for the Confederacy, destroying over 60 Northern ships in 22 months. The Laird rams were ships specifically designed to break blockades; the English prevented them from being sold to the South.

Election of 1864: candidates, parties

Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)

Financing of the war effort by North and South

The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.

Clara Barton

Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.

Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan

Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.

Assassination of April 14, 1865

While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth.

John Wilkes Booth

An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.

Ex Parte Milligan

1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.

Radical Republicans

After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.

Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto

1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.

Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen)

Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.

Reconstruction Acts

1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.

State suicide theory

The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.

Conquered territory theory

Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.

The unreconstructed South

The South's infrastructure had been destroyed - manufacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some areas starvation was imminent. General Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".

Black codes

Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.

Texas v. White

1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.

Thaddeus Stevens

A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.

Charles Sumner

The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.

Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.

General Oliver O. Howard

Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.

Ku Klux Klan

White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.

Civil Rights Act

1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.

Thirteenth Amendment

1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.

Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions

1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.

Fifteenth Amendment

Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".

Impeachment

To bring charges against a public official. Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.

Chief Justice Chase

Chief Justice in 1868, he upheld Republican Reconstruction laws and ruled that paper money was not a legal substitute for specie.

Secretary of War Stanton

As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.

Scalawags

A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.

Carpetbaggers

A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.

Purchase of Alaska

In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.

Secretary of State William Seward

1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.

Napoleon III

Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.

Maximillian in Mexico

European prince appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.

Monroe Doctrine

1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.

Ulysses S. Grant

U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.

Treaty of Washington

1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.

Secretary of State Hamilton Fish

A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.

Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley

Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.

Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden

Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.

Compromise of 1877 provisions

Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.

Solid South

Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.

Sharecropping, Crop Lien System

Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.

Segregation

The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.

Hiram R. Revels

North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.

Blanche K. Bruce

Became a senator in 1874 -- the only black to be elected to a full term until Edward Brooke in 1966.

Prigg v. Pennsylvania

1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

Ablemann v. Booth

1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.

Mississippi v. Johnson

Mississippi wanted the president to stop enforcing the Reconstruction Acts because they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court decided that the Acts were constitutional and the states must obey them.

Texas v. White

1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.

Ulysses S. Grant

U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.

Whiskey Ring

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.

"Waving the bloody shirt"

The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.

Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley

Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.

Panic of 1873, depression

Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.

Election of 1876: candidates, electoral commission

Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.

Compromise of 1877

Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.

Greenbacks

Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.

Ohio Idea

1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.

Legal Tender cases

The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).

Species Resumption Act

1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.

Greenbacks - Labor Party

Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.

Chester A. Arthur

Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland

Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.

Stalwarts

Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.

Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888)

A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.

Half-breeds

Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.

Mugwumps

Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.

"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"

James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.

High tariffs

Levied against imported and manufactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money for the federal government and help Northern industries.

Treasury surplus

During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deficit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.

Pensions, Garfield

Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability for any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think Confederate veterans should receive pensions.

Secret ballot / Australian ballot

First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.

Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address

Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs.

Election of 1888: candidates, issues

Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.

Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed

Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The first session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed: The nickname of Thomas Braket, Speaker of the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power of the Speaker.

McKinley Tariff

A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.

Election of 1892: candidates, issues

Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.

Morgan bond transaction

John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the confidence of European investors and used them for investment capital. He then took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal financial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies to form the U.S. Steel Company, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic of 1873.

Wilson - Gorman Tariff

Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.

Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895

The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).

Dingley Tariff

Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.

Laissez-faire

A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations

Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.

Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad

Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.

"Credit Mobilier"

A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railraod, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This percipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.

"Robber Barons"

The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.

John D. Rockefeller

Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.

Standard Oil Company

Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

Horizontal consolidation

A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.

Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick

Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.

Vertical consolidation

A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.

Charles Schwab (1862-1939)

Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.

Thomas A. Edison

One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.

Alexander Graham Bell

1876 - Invented the telephone.

Leland Stanford (1824-1893)

Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad.

James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad

Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.

Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad

A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.

Bessemer process

Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.

U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary

Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.

Mesabi Range

A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.

Pierpont Morgan

Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).

Gustavus Swift

In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.

Phillip Armour (1832-1901)

Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.

James B. Duke

Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.

Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)

One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.

"Stock watering"

Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

Jay Cooke Company

The Panic of 1873 was caused by the failure of this company, which had invested too heavily in railroads and lost money when the railroads cheated the federal government.

Jay Gould and Jim Fiske

Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.

Pools

Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic.

Rebates

Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.

Trusts

Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.

Holding companies

Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.

Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause"

No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.)

Munn v. Illinois

1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.

Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois

1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.

Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission

A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.

Long haul, short haul

Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.

Sherman Antitrust Act

1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.

E.C. Knight Company case

1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.

National Labor Union

Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.

William Sylvis

Leader of the National Labor Union.

Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly

An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.

Samuel Gompers

President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.

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