APUSH: The Great War - Potsdam Conference

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"Sick Man of Europe," Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars

Because the Ottoman Empire's internal authority had broken down, it was not able to keep order in Macedonia and Albania, and the Balkans were on the verge of war. After the second Balkan war, Bulgaria was forced to surrender much of the territory it won in the first Balkan war.

Triple Entente; Allies

Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.

Triple Alliance; Central Powers

Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.

Loans to the Allies

During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.

British blockade

Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.

Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge

May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.

Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues

The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.

Unrestricted submarine warfare

This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.

Zimmerman note

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.

Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik

After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).

War declared, April 1917

U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.

"Make the world safe for democracy"

Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.

Creel Committee

Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.

Bond drives

Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.

War Industries Board

The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.

Bernard Baruch

Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.

Herbert Hoover, Food Administration

He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.

Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918

Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.

Eugene V. Debs imprisoned

Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.

AEF

American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.

Selective service 1917

Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.

Black migration to northern cities

During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.

Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peach Conference

Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.

Wartime manpower losses

WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.

Fourteen Points

Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.

Congressional elections of 1918

The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.

Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty

The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.

Versailles Delegation

Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.

Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando

Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.

League of Nations

Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.

Collective Security

An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.

New Nations, self determination

After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.

Reparations

As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

Mandate system

A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.

Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty

Created the League of Nations.

Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty

One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.

Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations

Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.

"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette

Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.

Red Scare, Palmer raids

In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.

Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police

In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.

Inflation during WW I

Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.

Election of 1920: candidates, issues

Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.

Brief depression, 1920-1921

Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.

Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates

Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.

Normalcy

Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.

Esch-Cummins Transportation Act

Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Harding scandals: Charles Forbes

Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.

Harding scandals: Harry Daugherty

Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.

Harding scandals: Secretary of the Interior Fall

Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.

Harding scandals: Teapot Dome

1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.

Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair

He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.

Harding's death, Coolidge takes over

August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.

Bureau of the Budget

Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.

Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts

An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.

Senator George Norris (1861-1944), Muscle Shoals

He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.

Election of 1924: candidates

With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.

Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)

A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.

Progressive Party

The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.

McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos

The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.

Federal Farm Board

Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.

Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds

Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.

Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925

Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.

Henry L. Mencken, editor of the magazine, The American Mercury

In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.

"The Lost Generation"

Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby

Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.

Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit

He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.

Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy

Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.

Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms

He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.

T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"

One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.

Sigmund Freud's Theories

An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.

KDKA, Pittsburgh

One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.

Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone

Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.

Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's

Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.

Fundamentalists

Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.

Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System

1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.

Sacco and Vanzetti case

Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.

Leopold and Loeb case

Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.

Billy Sunday (1863-1935)

Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.

Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan

1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.

Henry Ford, the Model T, Alfred P. Sloan

1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.

Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)

Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.

The Jazz Singer

1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.

Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin

Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.

New Woman, Flappers

1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.

Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967)

Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.

James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)

American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association

Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.

Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis

Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.

Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey

1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.

Twenty-One Demands

Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.

Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917

Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.

Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty

The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.

Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922

The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.

Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty

Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.

5-3-1 ration

Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships, it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.

World Court

The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.

Reparations

As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

Dawes Plan, Young Plan

Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.

Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928

"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.

Causes of the depression

Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.

Depression as an international event

Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.

Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922

Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930

Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.

Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC

Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.

Bonus Army

1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.

"Hooverville"

Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.

Clark Memorandum

1928 - Under Secretary of State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary of 1904.

London Naval Conference

1909 - International Naval Conference held in London to adopt an international code of conduct for naval warfare.

Hoover Moratorium

June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.

Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine

1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.

Mexico's nationalization of oil

1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.

Ambassador Morrow

Dwight Whitney Morrow served as the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico from 1927 to 1930, during the Mexican-American diplomatic crisis.

Good Neighbor Policy

Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.

Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932

Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.

Election of 1932: candidates, issues

Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.

Twentieth Amendment

Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.

Wickersham Commission

National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.

Twenty-First Amendment

Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.

"Bank Holiday"

March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.

Hundred Days

March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.

"Relief, recovery, reform"

The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.

Brain trust

Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.

Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933

March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933

Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.

Gold Clause Act, 1935

It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.

National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)

The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.

National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)

Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.

National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle"

The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."

Hugh Johnson

Director of the NRA.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), Second AAA

1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act

1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.

Federal emergency Relief Administation (FERA)

Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.

Civil Works Admnistration (CWA)

Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.

Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes

Under Secertary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.

Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Project

The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.

Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)

Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent forclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.

Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)

1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Senator Norris

A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.

Rural Electrificaion Committee (REA)

May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.

National Youth Association (NYA)

June 1935 - Established as part of the WPA to provide part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs.

Indian Reorganization Act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

Recognition of the U.S.S.R.

November 1933 - In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.

Section 7A of the NRA

Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.

Wagner Act

May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.

Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage

June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).

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