Substances that can't be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
Main elements that organisms are made up of
CHNOPS (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Sulfur)
Elements required in small amounts only. Examples: iron (Fe), iodine (I), and copper (Cu).
Smallest unit of an element that retains its characteristic properties. Building blocks of life.
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Smaller particles within atoms
An atom's core.
Positively charged (+) particles in the atom's core
Neutral charge particles in the atom's core
Negatively charged (-) particles that spin around the nucleus.
Atoms that have the same number of protons but differ in the amount of neutrons.
Two or more different types of atoms combined in a fixed ratio.
The combination of a compound.
Three types: ionic, covalent, and hydrogen. How compounds are held together.
Formed between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other. One atom loses electrons and becomes positively charged and the other atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged.
Charged forms of the atoms
Electrons are shared between atoms.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Electrons shared equally between the atoms.
Polar Covalent Bond
Electrons are not shared equally between the atoms.
Molecules that have partially positive and partially negative charges. *Opposites attract.*
Weak chemical bonds that form when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom. Strong when present in large numbers.
Water being able to stick together.
Water being able to stick to other substances.
Unique Properties of Water
-Polar and can dissolve other polar substances.
-Cohesive and adhesive properties.
-High heat capacity.
-High surface tension
Contains high amounts of hydrogen ions. Have sour taste.
Contain high amounts of hydroxide ions. Slippery.
Another term for bases.
Number 1 to 14. 7 is neutral. Low- highly acidic. High- highly basic. Logarithmic scale, meaning a change in one pH number actually represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration.
Contain carbon atoms.
Don't contain carbon atoms.
Four classes of organic compounds
Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Categorized as either monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
Two most common are glucose (most abundant) and fructose (a common fruit sugar) Serve as energy source for cells.
Combination of two monosaccharides that are chemically linked. An H and an OH are added together, and a water molecule is removed.
Formed by linking two glucose molecules- forming a glycosidic bond.
How maltose is formed. A water molecule is lost. Also known as condensation.
Break up the disaccharide and form two monosaccharides by adding water.
Made up of many repeated units of monosaccharides. Most common: starch, cellulose, glycogen. Storage forms of sugar or structural cell components.
Molecule with repeating subunits of the same general type.
Animals store glucose molecules in the form of glyocgen in the liver and muscle cells.
Plant structures that "stockpile" alpha-glucose in the form of starch. Cellulose --> made of beta-glucose and is a major part of cell walls in plants. Lends strucutal support.Chitin, made up of beta-glucose molecules, serves as a structural molecule found in fungus walls and arthopoda exoskeletons.
Organic molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms. 20 different types. Has four important parts:
-an amino group
-a carboxyl group
-an R group
Distinctive groups of atoms that play a large role in determining the chemical behavior of the compound they are a part of.
Two amino acids joining together. Carboxyl group of one amino acid combines with amio group of another amino acid.
Bond between two amino acids.
If a group of amino acids are joined together in a "string" it forms this type of organic compound.
A polypeptide chain twisting and folding on itself and forms a 3D structure.
Consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Most common examples are fats, oils, phsopholipids, and steroids. Important because they function as structural components of cell membranes, sources of insulation, and a means of energy storage.
Typical fat consists of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. Requires the removal of three water molecules.
Linkage formed between the glycerol molecule and the fatty acids.
Fat that has a single covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms
Fat that has double bonds instead of single bonds.
Fat that has many double bonds within the fatty acid.
Contain 2 fatty acid "tails" and one negatively charged phosphate "head". Tails: hydrophobic b/c they are nonpolar in response to polar water.. Head: hydrophilic b/c of negatively charged head that is drawn to positively charged water.
Both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region, like phospholipids.
Basic structure of four linked carbon rings. Includes cholesterol, vitamin D, and hormones.
Contain CHNO, but also P. Molecules made up of simple units called nucleotides. Two kinds: DNA and RNA.
contains genes of all life.
essential for protein synthesis.
Oparin and Haldane
Proposed primitive atmosphere contained methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water, with almost no oxygen. Believed gases collide, thus the organic molecules we know today.
Miller and Urey
Stimulated early Earth's conditions in a lab experiment; put gases theorized to be abundant into a flask, struck them with electrical charges to mimic lightning and organic compounds formed.
Organisms that rely on organic molecules for food.
Organisms making their own food.
Most scientists believe that the earliest forms of life were most likely heterotrophs, relying on other organic molecules for energy.