AT Kingdoms Test

Created by aks4489 

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bacteria

-prokaryotic
-single celled
-both consumers and producers
-some move and some don't

eubacteria

a diverse group, larger of the two bacteria kingdoms

cyanobacteria

provide food and oxygen for aquatic life; however an overabundance of cyanobacteria produces a bloom, which can be harmful to aquatic life.

consumer bacteria

most bacteria fall in this catagorey

gram positive

a way to classify eubacteria, they are consumers, have thick cell walls and turn purple when stained

gram negative

a way to classify eubacteria, they are consumers, have thin cell walls and turn pink when stained

archaebacteria

produce their own food and are commonly called blue-green bacteria; some, however, may be yellow, black, or red in color. divided into groups according to where they live and how they get energy.
-live in salty (Extreme Halophiles), acidic (thermoacidophiles), or very hot (thermoacidophiles) climates

Antonie van Leeuwenhook

discovered bacteria in the 17th century

flagella

whip-like tails that help bacteria move

bacilli

rod shaped bacteria

cocci

sphere shaped bacteria

spirilla

spiral shaped bacteria

fission

simplest form of asexual reproduction, most bacteria reproduce this way

aerobes

organisms that do need oxygen to survive

anaerobes

organisms that do not need oxygen to survive

human health

bacteria are a neccesary part of it

vitamin K

a vitamin that some bacteria produce

saprophytes

use dead organisms as food and energy sources, thus recycling nutrients for use by other organisms.

bioremdiation

bacteria can be used to clean up enviormental pollutants with this system

bacteria

useful in
-food industry
-make medications

pathogens

bacteria that cause disease

pasterization

process of limited heating, can kill most harmful bacteria in food

vaccines

made from dead or weak bacteria
help prevent sickness

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

type of bacteria in pea plant roots that benefits the plant

protists

-eukaryotic
-single and many celled (mostly single celled except for algae)
-both consumers and producers
-some move others don't

plant-like protists

-commonly called algae
-are aquatic
-one and many celled
ex: kelp, diatoms, euglena
Importance:
-start food chains
-make oxygen
-used in human products

animal-like protists

-consumers
-protozoa is there common name
-mostly aquatic
Moves by use of:
-Cillia
-Flagella
-Pseudopods
ex: paramecium, amobea
Importance:
-major part of food chain
-causes illnesses

fungus-like protists

-consumers
-decomposers
-no common name
-mostly single celled
-live in moist conditions
-slime and water molds, downy mildew
Importance:
-illnesses
-crops
-decomposers
-eat dead things

fungi

-eukaryotic
-single and multi-celled
-consumers
-do not move

spores

must land on food source or fungus does not survive

lichen

mutalistic relationship between cyanobacteria or algae and fungi

fungi

live in or on living organisms and are called parasites

fungi

break down dead and decaying tissues and are called saprophytes

plants

-eukaryotic (with cell wall)
-many celled
-producer
-do not move

green algae

plants probably evolved from this

500 MYA

the aproximate time land plants started to show up

135 MYA

the aproximate time flowering plants showed up

cuticle

a waxy layer that keeps in water

cellulose

gives support to plants

seed

waterproof ____ coat or fruit

vascular plants

have tubelike structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant

nonvascular plants

do not have tubelike structures that carry water, nutrients, and other substances throughout the plant

cartenoids and chlorophyll

show that plants probobly had a common ancester

plants

some are:
nonvascular which are
seedless such as
mosses

plants

some are:
vascular which can be
seedless such as
ferns

plants

some are:
vascular which can be
seed plants such as
trees

seedless-vascular plants

Structure: long tube-like cells
General Size: 1-2m (horse tails)
Human Usage: peat and house plants
Ex: horse tails

gymnosperms

seeds are not protected
ex: brittle cone pine tree
conifers

angiosperms

seeds are protected by fruits or flowers

monocot

angiosperms
flowers: flower parts in multiples of three
leaves: narrow and long
vascular bundles: scattered
seeds: one cotyledon
ex: corn, rice, wheat, barely

diocots

angiosperms
flowers: parts in multiples of 4 or 5
leaves: network of veins in leaves
vascular bundles: bundles occur in rings
seeds: two cotyledons
ex: peanuts, oranges

rhizoids

threadlike roots of nonvascular plants that absorb and distribute water directly through their cells

stomata

Allow carbon dioxide, water, and oxygen to enter and exit the leaf

xylem

tissues that are made up of hollow, tubular cells that are stacked one on top of the other to form a structure called a vessel

phloem

is a plant tissue also made up of tubular cells that are stacked to form structures called tubes

cambium

tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells

tropism

plant response to water gravity or sunlight

animals

-eukaryotic
-many-celled
-consumer
-move

570 MYA

first animals appeared

420 MYA

first land animals appeared

herbivores

eat plants

carnivores

eat meat

omnivores

eat both plants and meat

invertebrates

-no backbone
-1.45 million species fit into the invertebrates
-most animals
-as simple as sponges as complex as insects

vertebrates

-have backbones
-only 50,000 species
-fish
-amphibions
-reptiles
-birds
-mammals (4,500 species)

producer

makes its own food

consumer

has to eat to survive

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