Social Psych final Exam

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Ingham(1974) found that when blindfolded participants thought they were pulling a tug of war with other participants they pulled _____than when they thought they were pulling alone.

less

Martha is excellent at organizing her employees, setting goals, and focusing on achieving those goals for the company. Martha excels in

task leadership

When individual efforts are pooled and not evaluated, evaluation apprehension is __________ and the probability of social loafing is __________.

low; high

Based on research cited in the text, who is most likely to honk aggressively at someone stopped at a green light?

The driver of a convertible with the top up

Sanders, Baron, and Moor (1978) have explained social facilitation by noting that a conflict occurs between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task at hand. They named this explanation ______.

driven to distraction

When people experience a loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension, they are in a state of ______

deindividuation

Which two symptoms of groupthink lead group members to overestimate their group's right and might?

an illusion of invulnerability and an unquestioned belief in the group's morality

who are made self-aware, by acting in front of a mirror or TV camera, for example, have been found to

behave more consistently with their attitudes

Norman Triplett is to _____ as Irving Janis is to ______.

social facilitation; groupthink

Consistent with the social facilitation effect, Michaels and collaborators (1982) found that when weak pool players in the student union were observed, they did ____ than when they did not know they were being observed.

worse

_____ in discussion produces more attitude change than does _____.

Active participation; passive listening

Groupthink can be defined as

a tendency to suppress dissent in the interests of group harmony.

Evaluation apprehension helps explain the enhancement of dominant responses when people

think they are being evaluated.

People in groups will loaf less when

a. the task is challenging.
b. the task is important and involving.
c. the group is cohesive

Closed-mindedness is most clearly fostered by which of the following symptoms of groupthink?

rationalization

You've noticed that your roommate tends to wash fewer dishes if he knows others are home. This is an example of

social loafing

________ refers to the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.

social loafing

Zimbardo (1970) explained the greater vandalism of an abandoned car left in New York than one left in Palo Alto in terms of the greater ___________ of the large city.

anonymity

According to Festinger (1954), it is human nature to want to evaluate our opinions by

comparing ourselves with others.

When being observed increases evaluation concerns, _____ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, _____ occurs.

social facilitation; social loafing

Research by Baron and colleagues (1996) demonstrated that merely hearing one's opinion about the comforts of a dental chair corroborated by another led to

more extreme ratings of the chair.

The larger the crowd, the ____ a person tends to be ____.

more; aroused

Most Americans agree that

they would vote for a qualified woman whom their party nominated for president.

Eagly's (1994) "women-are-wonderful" effect is an example of _____.
a. a form of prejudice

a favorable stereotype

Kala's grandparents immigrated from Europe. Kala holds such a strong belief that her ethnic group is superior to all others that she could accurately be described as being

Ethnocentric

In Hamilton and Gifford's (1976) study, students were told that various members of "Group A" or "Group B" did either something desirable or something undesirable. While many more statements described members of Group A than Group B, both groups were associated with nine desirable behaviors for every four undesirable behaviors. Results indicated

that students perceived members of Group B more negatively.

A belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group is called _____.

ethnocentrism

Realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises

when groups compete for scarce resources.

Taylor and Fiske (1978) have found that a Black in an otherwise White group, a man in an otherwise female group, or a woman in an otherwise male group seems

to be the cause of whatever happens.

Elana's boss told her today that she is being let go due to company downsizing. Later when she goes home, she is critical of her girlfriend's choice of restaurant for dinner.

displaced aggression

Research on "terror management" has shown that when feeling vulnerable about their own mortality, people are ________ likely to derogate ________ members.

more; outgroup

In examining photographs of people in magazines and newspapers, Archer (1983) and colleagues found that, relative to the average female photo, the average male photo is more likely to

emphasize the face.

In the 1940s, researchers Kenneth Clark and Mamie Clark (1947) gave African-American children a choice between Black dolls and White dolls. Results showed that most

chose the White dolls.

Cultural attitudes are embodied and reinforced in

a. schools.
b. government.
c. media.

____ occurs when groups of individuals who don't fit their stereotype are thought of as a special category.

Subtyping

Psychologist William James believed that "Piety is the mask" for

all sorts of cruel deeds

The text indicates that, until recently, prejudice was greatest in regions where slavery was practiced. This fact is consistent with the principle that __________ breeds prejudice.

conformity

Which of the following is true?

Those for whom religion is an end in itself express less prejudice than those for whom religion is more a means to an end.

A group of people who share a sense of belonging or a feeling of a common identity is a

ingroup.

Mr. Watson's belief that Blacks are lazy is an example of ____. His refusal to rent an apartment to a Black family is an example of ____.

a stereotype; discrimination

Prejudice is a

attitude

Consistent with the phenomenon of the greatest prejudice occurring in the most intimate social realms, a national 1994 survey of Americans found that ____ percent would shop at a store owned by a homosexual, and ____ percent would see a homosexual doctor.

75; 39

Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex are called _____.

sexism

Ayres' (1991) research team visited 90 Chicago-area car dealers using a uniform strategy to negotiate the lowest price on a $11,000 car. The results indicated that ____ were given the highest quote.

Black females

The phrase "they are all alike, but we are diverse" reflects

the outgroup homogeneity effect

Because we are sensitive to distinctive events, the simultaneous occurrence of two such events is especially noticeable. Our attentiveness to unusual occurrences can create

illusory correlations.

Although most suspects in cases of incest, child molestation, and sexual abuse are heterosexual males, the local newspaper omits the word "heterosexual" in any related headline. In contrast, whenever a self-described gay male is arrested for a crime, the headline proclaims "homosexual arrested" in the case. The resulting prejudice that gay males are more likely to commit violent crimes can in part be blamed on

illusory correlation.

Consistent with the theory that there are biochemical influences on aggression, research has found that violent people are ____ likely to drink and to become _____ when intoxicated.

more; aggressive

Research on alcohol and aggression has indicated that

a. over half of rapists surveyed report they had been drinking before committing their offense.
b. people who have been drinking commit more than half of all homicides.
c. in experiments, intoxicated people administer stronger shocks.

In a revision of frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz emphasized the importance of

anger, an emotional readiness to aggress.

__________ is defined as aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself and can also be referred to as affective aggression

hostile aggression

Research has found that when measured in infancy, temperament

usually endures.

Bradshaw's books on "reclaiming your inner child" suggest techniques that are consistent with what social psychologists call

diffusing responsibility

Studies of hormonal influences on aggression indicate that

after age 25, testosterone and rates of violent crime decrease together.

In Schachter and Singer's classic 1962 study, participants injected with adrenaline were exposed to either an angry or a euphoric confederate. Participants who expected the injection to make them feel _____ became _____ when placed with the angry confederate.

no side effects; angry

According to Albert Bandura, an important influence on one's tendency to be aggressive is

observations of others' behavior.

Displaced aggression is most likely when the target _____ to the instigator

shares some similarity

shares some similarity

is basically over

Your boss just told you that she is giving you a 5 percentt raise starting with your next paycheck. You are very pleased to hear this good news until you learn that some of your coworkers earned a 10 percent raise. Now you are unhappy and angry about your raise. Your experience is best explained in terms of

the relative deprivation principle.

The correlation between parental (father) absence and violence holds

across race, status, and education.

The perception that one is less well off than others to whom one compares oneself is referred to as

relative deprivation.

Sigmund Freud argued that aggression ultimately springs from

a primitive death urge

Court (1985) reports that as pornographic materials have become more widely available, the rate of reported rapes has generally been found to

increase.

_______ is defined as physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm.

aggression

After arguing with her boyfriend Peter over the telephone, Roberta smashes down the receiver and then throws the phone across the room. This behavior most clearly demonstrates

displacement.

According to Myers, American and British leaders in 2003 justified attacking Iraq not as a hostile effort to kill Iraqis, but as an instrumental act of liberation and of self-defense against presumed weapons of mass destruction. Social psychologists would consider this an example of _____ aggression.

instrumental

Compared to the national rate, abused children are _______ times _______ likely to abuse their own children.

4; more

Violent crimes are more likely

. when the weather is hot.

Arvid didn't work very hard on his last class essay assignment, so he was relieved at first to find he'd gotten a "C" on it. But when he learned that most of his classmates had gotten "B's" and "A's", he felt unhappy and angry about his grade. Arvid's experience is best explained in terms of

the relative deprivation principle.

Research by Craig Anderson shows that violent video games

a. increase arousal
b. increase aggressive thinking
c. decrease prosocial behavior

According to your text, the relationship between intelligence and television viewing is _____.

negative

How intense and reactive we are in infancy reflects our

temperament.

Seven in ten infants exhibit ________ attachment.

secure

Researchers have found that people tend to pair off with partners who are about as attractive as themselves. This is known as

the matching phenomenon

The contrast effect applies to our perceptions of

a. others.
b. ourselves.

Eros is to _____ as storge is to _____.

passion; friendship

The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as

the mere exposure effect.

Some years ago, a mysterious student enveloped in a big black bag began attending a speech class at a state university. While the teacher knew "Black Bag's" identity, the other students did not. As the semester progressed, the students' attitude toward Black Bag changed from hostility to curiosity to friendship. What may best explain the students' change in attitude?

Exposure breeds liking.

Hatfield defines _____ as a state of intense longing for union with another.

passionate love

Marcus and Miller (2003) have found that people's agreement about others' attractiveness is higher when ____ than when ____.

men rate women; men rate men

According to the _____ hypothesis, people are attracted to those whose needs are different in ways that complete each other.

complementarity

comparison to women, men fall in love more _____ and out of love more _____.

readily; slowly

Rosalinda, who is attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status, marries Jorge, who is also attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status. Their relationship is best understood as an example of

the matching phenomenon.

Penny has just arrived as a new student on campus and does not know anyone. All else being equal, is she most likely to become friends with Joni who lives next door, with Crissy who lives two doors down, with Beth who lives three doors down, or with Helda who lives in the room directly above?

Joni

Brent is a White man who has been given a choice to work with Darwin or Ken. Darwin is a Black man who shares many of Brent's values and attitudes. Ken is a White man who shares little in common with Brent. Who will Brent like most and want to work with?

Darwin

Even when people have no strong feelings about a product or a candidate, _____ can increase sales or votes.

repetition

_____ of those who do pray with their spouse report their marriage as "very happy."

Most

According to Elliot Aronson, "as a relationship ripens toward greater intimacy, what becomes increasingly important is

authenticity."

The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner is referred to as

disclosure reciprocity

Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others is the definition of

self-disclosure.

Gangestad and others (2003) have found that during ovulation, women show a heightened preference for men with

masculine features.

The advice to continue having romantic dinners, trips to the theatre, and vacations once married would most probably be offered by

reward theory of attraction

Williams and colleagues (2001) have found that when our need to belong is thwarted by ostracism, we respond with all of the following EXCEPT

a. depressed mood.
b. anxiety.
c. hurt feelings.

In experiments by Zajonc and his coworkers, participants were exposed to brief novel passages of music while they focused their attention on other tasks. Results indicated that mere exposure leads to liking

even when people are unaware of what they have been exposed to.

Research on the two-factor theory of love supports which of the following conclusions?

"Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder."

The __________ is defined as the presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well: What is beautiful is good.

Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

According to the text, the first step in scientifically studying romantic love is to

define and measure it.

Research indicates that it is only through socialization that children

a. exhibit empathy.
b. take pleasure in being helpful

In a study by Latané and Rodin (1969), a female experimenter apparently fell and hurt her ankle. What percentage of participants who were alone offered help?

70

Which theory specifically predicts that we will be more altruistic toward our relatives than toward close friends?

evolutionary psychology

According to the text, people in a hurry may be less willing to help because

they never fully grasp the situation as one requiring their assistance.

When Piliavin (1969) and colleagues staged an emergency—a staggering, collapsing man—on 103 subway trips, they found that the victim was promptly offered assistance almost every time, even when he appeared to be drunk rather than disabled. Further research seems to confirm that bystander helpfulness was due at least in part to

the fact that the situation was unambiguous.

The notion of egoism maintains that

self-interest motivates all behavior

According to the text, individuals who identify as ______ in terms of spiritual commitment were most likely to report working among the poor, infirm, or elderly.

highly committed

Confederates who were dressed either conservatively or in counterculture garb approached either "straight" or "hip" college students and asked for change to make a phone call. Results of this experiment confirmed a _____ bias in helping.

similarity

The relationship between our degree of self-awareness and our willingness to help is

positive

According to the text, the notion of egoism has fallen into disrepute because

it is vulnerable to the criticism of circular explanation.

Bystanders will inhibit helping most under which of the following conditions?

a. the emergency is ambiguous
b. the other bystanders are strangers
c. the bystanders cannot readily read one another's reactions

While walking down the street with your friend Sabrina the other day, she stopped to ask a child why he was crying. The boy said that he was lost, so Sabrina took time out of her busy day to help the child find his way home. Sarbrina's behavior can be characterized by

altruism.

DeBruine (2002) found that when students played an interactive game with a supposed other player, participants were ______ when the other person's pictured face had some features of their own face morphed into it

more trusting and more generous

Since we are born selfish, evolutionary psychologists such as Richard Dawkins propose that we attempt to

teach altruism

The opposite of altruism is _____.

egoism

Compared to low self-monitoring people, high self-monitoring people are especially helpful if they think that

helpfulness will be socially rewarded

In a study by Latané and Rodin (1969), a female experimenter apparently fell and hurt her ankle. When pairs of strangers confronted the emergency, what percentage offered help?

70

Schaller and Cialdini (1988) told participants who felt sad over a suffering victim that their sadness was going to be relieved by listening to a comedy tape. Under these conditions, participants who felt empathy for the victim

were not especially helpful.

Ninety percent of those who have received the Carnegie medal for heroism in saving human life have been

men.

The research on gender and helping norms reveals that men offered more help when the persons in need were _____, and women offered help _____.

females; equally to males and females

Latané and Darley (1968) had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working _____tended to notice the smoke _____.

alone; in less than five seconds.

Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?

model prosocial behavior
make people feel guilty

From an evolutionary perspective it would be most difficult to explain why

Ruth risked her life to save a stranger from being murdered.

According to the text, _____ provides the classic illustration of pure altruism.

the parable of the Good Samaritan

You trip over a fallen branch and sprain your ankle. According to research on the bystander effect, a stranger who sees your plight will be most likely to offer aid if there are ______ others present.

no

The motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests defines

altruism.

____ is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.

persuasion

According to the text, the factor that determines whether we call attempts at persuasion "education" or "propaganda" is whether

we believe them or not

Which of the following must take place before a message is likely to persuade?

attention

When are you more likely to be persuaded?

when a message is clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are convincing

The _____ route to persuasion occurs when interested people focus on arguments.

central

Suzy is interested in purchasing a DVD player and is overwhelmed by the many different models available at her local electronics store. She decides to purchase a shiny, metallic-looking model, as it is the best-looking one in the store. Suzy has been persuaded to purchase this particular DVD player because of the _____route to persuasion.

peripheral

Which route to persuasion is more likely to lead to long-lasting attitude and behavior changes?

central

Another term for believability is

credibility

If people remember the message better than the reason for discounting it, the impact of a noncredible person may ____ over time.

increase

The _____ effect occurs when we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.

sleeper

Researchers have found that trustworthiness is _____ if the audience believes the communicator is NOT trying to persuade them.

higher

Research has found that ____ speakers are rated as more objective, intelligent, and knowledgeable.

fast

When people allow the example of others to validate how to think, feel, and act, Cialdini (2000) would call this the ____ principle of persuasion.

social proof

____ is defined as having qualities that appeal to an audience

attractiveness

We tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?

similarity

Brock (1965) found that paint store customers were more influenced by the testimony of

an ordinary person who recently bought the same amount of paint as they did

Who is more responsive to rational appeals?

well-educated and analytic people

Fear-arousing messages have proven potent in convincing people to

cut down on smoking Incorrect
brush their teeth more often Incorrect
drive carefully Incorrect

When the fear aroused by a persuasive message is relevant to a pleasurable activity (e.g., sex or smoking), the result according to Aronson (1997) is often

denial

In your marketing class, your assignment is to create an advertisement that will encourage people to buy brand X nicotine patch over brand Y nicotine patch. Given your knowledge of persuasion, which strategy would be most effective?

an ad that reads "Lung cancer kills," along with a suggestion that patch X is an effective strategy for quitting smoking

Studies have shown that if people are or will be aware of opposing arguments, a ______ presentation is more persuasive and enduring.

two-sided

The _____ effect refers to how information presented first usually has the most influence.

primacy

Which of the following illustrates media influence through a two-step flow of communication?

A man buys a new laundry detergent after hearing it recommended by a friend who read that it was both effective and environmentally safe in a consumer magazine article

Chaiken and Eagly (1976) have found that when a message was difficult to comprehend, persuasion was greatest when the message was

written

People with _____ self-esteem are the easiest to influence.

moderate

Two suspects are arrested for allegedly committing a crime. The police tell them that if one confesses, the confessor will be set free and the other one will be convicted of the crime. The suspects are confronted with

the prisoner's dilemma.

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