Why did Plains Indian tribes traditionally follow the buffalo migration?
To provide for food, shelter, fuel, tools, and weapons
Which of the following describes the Indian conception of land?
There was no concept of individual land ownership native society
During which battle did Sioux and Cheyenne overwhelm and kill Custer and his men?
The Battle of the Little Bighorn
The religious ceremony which promised the return of the buffalo and the restoration of traditional ways of life was known as the
The 1887 Dawes Act was designed to promote all the following EXCEPT:
reestablishment of the reservation system
Which of the following statements best describes cowboys?
none of the above
The Homestead Act of 1862
provided 160 acres of "free" land in the west.
Which was a well-known route for the movement of cattle from the open ranges to the stockades of the late 19th century?
How did barbed wire revolutionize life and the overall economy of the plains?
enabled farmers to prevent open range cattle from trampling their crops
Which were challenges pioneers had to face on the frontier?
all of the above
Which contributed to the massive industrialization of the late 19th century?
A) the availability of large quantities of natural resources
Which of the following was NOT a "captain of industry"?
C) Jacob Riis
What did Rockefeller use to gain control of all phases of oil production, from the extraction of raw materials to the marketing of finished products?
C) vertical integration
Thomas Edison credited with inventing all of the following EXCEPT:
The Gospel of Wealth promoted the concept that people with wealth should
A) use their resources to help society (and individuals) improve.
All of the following impeded the growth of unions EXCEPT:
C) lack of interest on the part of workers themselves
Which labor union emphasized broad social/political concerns and organized all workers, regardless of skill level, sex, and race?
A) Knights of Labor
A major feature of the program of the AFL was its emphasis on
C) immediate objectives, such as wages, hours, and working conditions.
Which of the following best describes the concept that government should leave the economy alone so as to avoid disrupting the "natural order" or things?
The Haymarket Square Riot of 1886 was
B) an indication to the public that labor was riddled with radicals/anarchists.
Which individual encouraged African-Americans to make themselves economically indispensable to whites, thereby bringing forth civil rights and white acceptance?
D) Booker T. Washington
The 1896 court case Plessy vs. Ferguson established the principle of
A) legal segregation.
Statistically, who were the "new immigrants" who poured into the U.S. in the late 19th century?
B) Southern/eastern Europeans/Asians
These new immigrants settled primarily in eastern industrial cities because they often
D) all of the above
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
D) all of the above
The term "nativism" may be used to describe those who
A) objected to immigrants and advocated their restriction
According to the "cult of domesticity"
C) the home was the "woman's sphere" while men dealt with the world of finance and economics.
What was one consequence of using new mass transit facilities in American cities?
D) all of the above
Which of the following was NOT a prominent writer of the late 19th century?
C) Stephen King
The term used to describe the dwellings of many working class people is
A) dumbbell tenements.
The urban political machine had all of the following goals EXCEPT:
B) keeping Irish Catholics from gaining control of city government
Which act created the basis for our current civil service system?
A) Pendleton Act
Which of the following represents an example of how America was becoming more of a consumer nation in than every before?
D) all are examples
Populists favored which of the following?
A) direct election of senators
Coxey's army advocated which of the following?
C) the creation of jobs by means of a government works program
The Populist Party was a political voice of which organization?
A) Farmers' Alliance
Which organization formed to agitate for women's suffrage?
Legislation passed by southerners to facilitate segregation are known as
B) Jim Crow laws
Who assassinated President Garfield?
C) C. Guiteau
Which phrase describes the late 19th century cultural preoccupation with sobriety and self control, as a visual example of the success of the wealthy classes?
A) Victorian Morality
Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce indian tribe. He tride to escape the white people chasing after his tribe. He traveled over 75 days and was caught right before reachign the Canadian boarder. Most of the people died of malnutrician and being relocatted many times but he survived.
Fredrick Remington was a paintor and a sculptor. He portrayed the West as a very romantic place. He made the cowboy seem as if they were naturally wealthy. He became one of the most beloved artists of the 19th century.
Social Darwinism is to believe in the idea brought by Charles Darwin known as Natural Selection. Natural Selection is where only the fittest survived. This concept tells us that the only fittest in America, where the individual or company could survive the marketplace.
Ellis Island was the place where all immigrants first came to America to be checked for disease and approval into America. Ellis Island was an inspection station.
Andrew Carnegie became a central figure in the steel industry. He was also a scottish immigrant. He stroke deals with the railroads to cut costs. In addition, he sold out for $450 million to J.P. Morgan. Canegie controlled teh processing of his steel from mine to market.
Populism is a political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle angainst the priviliged elite. They advocated voting for their senetors and wanted to get rid of the national bank.
"goldbugs" vs. "silverites"
In the late 19th century politics increasingly centered around the firey debate over the currency set on silver and gold and one set on gold only. The goldbugs wanted money backed by gold. The silverites wanted the silver to also be used to back the dollar.
Coney Island was an amusement park which symbolized financial growth and enjoyment new immigrants could have for the first time in their lives. It was located in Brooklyn, New York.
Ragtime was a music genre enjoyed between 1897 and 1918. It was also known to be African-American music.
Tammany Hall created the notion of Boss rule and exercised that fact greatly. It also featured the most famous city boss, William M. Tweed who was also corrupt.
Many Americans supported U.S. expansion because of the belief that
D) all of the above
Who wrote the influential book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History?
B) A.T. Mahan
The U.S. acquired the Hawaiian islands as a result of all of the following EXCEPT:
C) Queen Liliuokalani asked the U.S. to "take over" in the face of revolution
During the Cuban Revolution, Hearst and Pulitzer concentrated on
A) atrocities that accompanied Spain's "re-concentration" policy.
The de Lome letter
B) insulted President McKinley.
Congress passed the Teller Amendment to "clarify" U.S. interest in
A) Cuban independence.
U.S. mobilization for the war (Sp-Am) was plagued by all of the following EXCEPT:
C) a shortage of volunteers
The Rough Riders
D) all of the above
Blacks who fought in the Spanish-American war faced all of the following EXCEPT:
B) they were not paid at all for their services
In the conflict in the Philippine Islands between 1898 and 1902, the U.S.
B) with great difficulty suppressed a full-scale revolt that the majority of the Filipino people supported.
Americans who created organizations like the Anti-Imperialist League
D) all of the above
America's Open Door Policy was designed to guarantee
B) America's access to the trade markets of China.
The Platt Amendment
A) barred Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba to "preserve independence, life, and property."
Which event enabled America to re-stress the Open Door Notes?
D) Boxer Rebellion
How did the U.S. acquire the Panama Canal?
D) none of the above
Teddy Roosevelt's foreign policy is best described by which phrase?
B) "speak softly and carry a big stick"
Which was NOT a key national problem identified by progressive reformers?
B) racial segregation and discrimination
The groundwork for Progressivism was laid by all of the following EXCEPT:
D) Russian communists
Features of Progressivism included:
D) all of the above
Which one of the following was a pioneer in the settlement house movement?
B) Jane Addams
Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt held differing views on how best to achieve
C) women's suffrage
Who said, "I aimed at the nation's heart, but hit it in the stomach"?
B) U. Sinclair, The Jungle
All of the following were acts of Progressive legislation EXCEPT:
A) 20th amd.
The Eugenics movement
B) claimed humans and society could be improved by controlled breeding.
The individual who argued that African Americans should demand full rights immediately and who helped to found the NAACP was
C) W.E.B. Dubois
Women won the right to vote with the passage of which amendment?
Who launched an anti-lynching campaign in the 1890s as part of the Progressive era?
C) Ida B. Wells
In 1915 Wilson warned Germany that it would be held "strictly accountable" for
B) the loss of American lives and property incurred from submarine attacks.
Why did the Zimmerman telegram seem like a provocation of war from Germany?
A) It proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico and pledged to return to Mexico its "lost" territory of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.
During World War I, the War Industries Board
D) all of the above
After the sinking of the Lusitania, Germany agreed to
C) suspend its use of unrestricted submarines warfare.
Herbert Hoover was significant to the American war effort as head of the
D) Food Administration
The main purpose of the Committee on Public Information during WWI was to
A) mobilize public support for the war and encourage "100% Americanism."
In Schenck vs. U.S., the Supreme Court ruled that in time of war, the government could limit the right to
D) free speech
Which does NOT describe the experience of African Americans during WWI?
A) Most opposed U.S. involvement in the war.
Which of the following gave officials the authority to ban newspapers/magazines from the mails, and made it a federal offense to criticize government war policies?
B) Espionage/Sedition Acts
The Triple Alliance included
The Fourteen Points were
C) Wilson's statement of American post-war aims.
The Red Scare which occurred after WWI
D) all of the above
The Niagara Movement was devoted to
A) civil rights for African Americans.
"new" Manifest Destiny
The New manifest Destiny was promoted primarily by industrial interests. The goal was the aquisition of raw materials, markets for surplus goods, and expansion outside of the United States. It's driving forced was influenced by patriotic and nationalist concerns.
Emilio Aquinaldo was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader for the Philippines. He also became Philipine's first president. He led the revolt against the Spanish and also the Philipine-American War.
Jingoism is extreme patriotism ina form of aggressive foreign policy. It advocates the use of force against other countries in order to keep the country you live in safe.
Pure Food and Drug Act
The Pure Food and Drug Act is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products. The Act helped make food safe and insured sanitary conditions where food was produced.
United States naturalist who advocated the creation of national parks. He helped saved Yosemite Valley and Sequoia National Park. The Sierra Club was founded by him and is one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States.
Margaret Sanger was known as an advocate for birth control and sex education. She also founded the America Birth Control League.
The Hepburn Act of 1906 gave the Interstate Commerce Commision the power to set maximum railroad rates. People could no longer charge what they wanted to.
The Lusitania was sunk by the Germans with the use of unrestricted submarine warfare. It was a private ocean liner that caused much outrage in America. It was later on realized that it contained ammunition and war supplies.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General. Led raids around the country and arrested many people. Looking for explosives and weopons Mitchell found only 3 pistols and no dynamite.
Trench warfare was extremely violent fighting in small quarters. The soldiers fought in small areas that were very unsanitary. They were protected by barbed wire. In addition there were very severe casualties.
Which best describes the post-WWI American attitude toward business?
A) There was a pro-business atmosphere in the White House.
Harding's call for a "return to normalcy" meant a
C) call for the "regular" order of things, without excess.
Which sector of the economy did NOT generally prosper in the 1920s?
Henry Ford introduced all the following innovations to the auto industry EXCEPT:
C) vibrant colors to choose from
Innovations to the 1920s national economy included all of the following EXCEPT:
C) families spending an increasing proportion of their income on necessities rather than luxuries
The glorification of celebrities in the 1920s was expressed in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
D) the popularity of I Love Lucy
Why did American society and "manners and morals" seem to change in the 1920s?
D) all of the above
All of the following individuals were associated with the cultural/artistic fervor of the 1920s EXCEPT:
A) Al Smith
All of the following were reasons why Prohibition failed EXCEPT:
C) women traditionally opposed prohibition
The major theme of the Harlem Renaissance was
A) racial pride.
The term/phrase that became a catchword for the corruption of President Harding's administration was
B) "Teapot Dome"
Serious problems in the American economy prior to the crash of 1929 included all of the following EXCEPT:
C) high unemployment
Who used music to illustrate the hardships and struggles of working-class Americans during the Depression?
B) Woody Guthrie
Herbert Hoover believed economic recovery from the Depression depended on
B) voluntary cooperation among business, labor and the government.
The Bonus Army/marchers in 1932 were
A) WWI veterans who marched on Washington to lobby for immediate cash payments of their veterans' bonuses.
In comparison to Hoover, FDR was better able to
A) communicate a sense of hope and confidence to Americans.
"Fireside chats" were
A) FDR's radio messages in which he explained his programs/plans to Americans.
What was FDR's first action against the Great Depression?
D) He restored public confidence in the banking systems through the Emergency Banking Relief Act and the creation of the FDIC.
Who was the first female cabinet member, appointed by FDR as secretary of labor?
B) F. Perkins
Aside from the 1930s economic conditions, farmers on the Great Plains also suffered
A) from drought.
What term/phrase best describes Roosevelt's New Deal advisors?
C) "brain trust"
The Agricultural Adjustment Act helped
B) establish government subsidies for limiting production.
Which piece of New Deal legislation established the principle of federal responsibility for social welfare?
D) Social Security
Which of the following New Deal programs is NOT correctly matched with its role?
B) REA—provide electricity only to people in the Tennessee River Valley region
FDR's actions regarding African Americans were limited in part by his
C) desire to appease Southerners.
The "social conscience" of the New Deal, as illustrated by his/her support of individuals like Marion Anderson, was supplied by the compassion of
A) Eleanor Roosevelt.
How did the Farmers' Holiday association seek to gain higher prices for farm products?
B) withholding agricultural products from the market
Who captured the essence of the Depression experience with his novel, The Grapes of Wrath?
D) John Steinbeck
Roosevelt's most serious political mistake during his New Deal years was
C) thinking he could pack the Supreme Court with liberal, pro-ND justices.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of the New Deal?
A) Everyone agrees it brought about full economic recovery.
Identify which world political leader is INCORRECTLY matched with his country:
C) Hideki Tojo—China
Which most readily brings to mind European appeasement of the Nazis?
C) Munich Conference
What policy overturned the concept of "cash and carry" and allowed the U.S. to more effectively help the Allies, especially Britain and eventually Russia, supply themselves with the products of war?
All of the following refer to events on the U.S. home front during WWII EXCEPT:
Which agency was established in part to articulate war aims and develop patriotism?
The code name for the allied invasion of France in 1944 was Operation
Which is INCORRECTLY matched?
C) Dumbarton Oaks conference = established the League of Nations
What strategy did the U.S. use in the Pacific theater of war?
B) island hopping
The Manhattan Project was
D) the secret, $2 billion project to develop an atomic bomb.
After what event(s) did the Japanese accept terms of unconditional surrender?
A) the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The Jazz Age started because of new music starting from the South to the North. This was caused by the black migration. Another important issue was the youth of America looked for a way to go against the "old ways" and go out and enjoy themselves by dancing.
The Scopes-Monkey Trial was about a teacher, John Scopes decidinding to teach about the theory of evolution in his high school Biology class. This took place in Tennessee in the year 1925. He was found guilty but the verdict was overturned on a technicality.
Charles Lindberg was one of the first American Idols. He flew across the Atlantic and served in our country's political offics to help advance our country. Lindberg's child was kidnapped in 1932 and eventually the dead body was found.
Hoovervilles were shanty towns built by homeless men during the depression. These villages were named after Hoover because the public felt he let the country fall into the Depression.
Civilian Conservation Corps
The CCC was a public work relief program for men without jobs. This program concntrated on conserving our natural resourses. The CCC ran from 1933 to 1942.
Pearl Harbor was an attack by the Japanese that officially brought us into World War Two. This happened on December 7, 1941.
Battle of Midway
Midway was a major naval battle that inflicted major destruction to the Japanese fleet. We were able to finally keep the Japanese at bay and this battle helped lead us to a final victory.
The hidden Army refers to the Woman who helped this country during the war years. For the first time woman entered the workforce doing jobs only given to men. The woman welded, built ships and even weapons. The woman were a mighty force in America's fight for freedom and boldly accepted the task.
Auschwitz was known as the worst Concentration Camps ever. Jews,Poles and countles others were killed,starved, and tortured their by the infamous Nazi's of the German Army. This camp was equipted with gas chambers and ovens to kill in the name of hatred.
The Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that caused major damage to prairie lands from 1930 till 1936. This was caused by drought and improper farming and crop rotation. This actually streched from Texas into the Dakotas.
Which individual was convicted of perjury in the 1940s, a victim of the anti-communist hysteria following WWII?
C) Alger Hiss
According to the Truman Doctrine,
A) the U.S. had to support free people everywhere who were resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
The Marshall Plan was designed to do all the following EXCEPT:
D) foster nationalistic economic policies in Western Europe
"Operation Vittles" is otherwise known as the
B) Berlin Air Lift.
Victims of McCarthyism included
D) Virtually anyone suspected of "disloyalty"/unwilling to help with investigations.
The Korean War
D) all of the above
Which leader once took his shoe off and pounded it on a table during remarks to the United Nations, stating he would "bury" the United States?
A) Nikita Khrushchev
What was an immediate impact of Sputnik in America?
B) American monetary commitment for higher education
In response to Brown vs. Board, southern states
A) mounted a campaign of "massive resistance" designed to protest the court's decision.
The 1950s is usually portrayed as a decade marked by all the following EXCEPT:
D) violent conflict
America's economic prosperity in the 1950s was fueled by
D) all of the above
What term was used to describe the group of young writers, poets, and artists who criticized what they considered the sterility and conformity of American life in the 1950s?
Which is NOT associated with the Civil Rights Movement?
Soon after JFK became President, he authorized a CIA-backed plan to overthrow Castro through an invasion beginning at the
B) Bay of Pigs
The Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved when
B) JFK accepted Khrushchev's offer to remove the missile bases from Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade the island, as well as our pledge to remove similar sites from Turkey.
The Tonkin Gulf Resolutions
B) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures" to repel any armed attack against U.S. forces and prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
As a result of the Tet offensive
C) Americans came to realize despite the administration's claims to the contrary, the North Vietnamese were not demoralized and ready to surrender.
The My Lai massacre
D) all of the above
At Kent State in May 1970
C) National Guard troops fired at a crowd of student demonstrators, killing 4.
What ultimately ended our official presence in Vietnam?
A) Paris Accords
Which may be considered part of the passive segment of the Civil Rights movement?
A) "sit-ins" and "freedom riders"
The 1964 Civil Rights Act did NOT address discrimination in
E) residential housing AND voting
Militant blacks willing to use force to defend their Civil Rights were known as
B) Black Panthers
Lyndon Johnson's reform program became known as the
D) Great Society
Nixon's most important advisor in foreign affairs was
A) Henry Kissinger.
Of the following, the most controversial issue in the National Organization for Women's (NOW) bill of rights for women was its support for
D) an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution.
Which organization developed in 1966 to illustrate forcefully, and sometimes militantly, the plight of Native Americans?
The person largely responsible for kindling the ethnic pride and solidarity of Mexican-Americans in the 1960s was
A) Cesar Chavez.
The Watergate scandal began with a break-in at the
B) offices of the Democratic National Committee.
What did Rachel Carson's Silent Spring comment on?
A) the dangerous use of DDT and other pesticides
Which of the following led the "British Invasion" of the 1960s musical world?
Who were the first humans to walk on the moon?
B) Buzz Aldrin and Neal Armstrong
Which organization gained power over the world economy in the mid-to-late 1970s by controlling the production and price of oil?
What foreign policy triumph for Jimmy Carter formalized relations between Egypt and Israel and let to the Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula?
A) Camp David Agreement
Which piece of legislation banned discrimination against physically handicapped persons in employment, transportation, and public accommodations?
D) American with Disabilities Act
Iraq's invasion of which country precipitated the First Persian Gulf War?
Who was the leader of Vietnamese nationalism at the end of WWII, and became our "enemy" in the years to come?
A) Ho Chi Minh
In his 1963 "I have a dream" speech during the march on D.C., Martin Luther King, Jr. expressed his earnest desire for
D) racial equality
Opponents of the Equal Rights Amendment argued that
D) all of the above
Which was often used to describe the division between the US and the USSR during the Cold War?
B) Iron Curtain
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was an alliance between the non-communist countries which accounted for 12 countries. The main purpose was to ensure that no other country shall fall under communist influence. If just one country was invaded from NATO then the other eleven would attack in response. The communist party then decided to have their alliance and called it the Warsaw pact which consisted of 8 countries.
NASA stands for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It was created in response to Sputnik being put in outer space. America needed to compete with the Soviet Union because we felt that whoever got to space would be able to rule the world, so when the Soviet Union was able to put Sputnik into Space, America needed to "outdo" them and thus the Space Race began.
The Warren Commission was created to inspect the assassination of President Kennedy. In addition, it had found that the murderers of Lee Harvey Oswald and John F. Kennedy had no connection. The Warren Commission might have left out vital pieces of information, which may prove that there was a correlation with Jack Ruby and Lee Harvey Oswald.
Jack Ruby was the murderer of Lee Harvey Oswald who shot John F. Kennedy. He was a local bar owner. He pretended to be a reporter when he shot Oswald.
Woodstock took place at Bethel, New York through a period of three days from August 15 to August 18. It was a place for music and people to gather and became one of the most influential rock event in history. It was know for promoting love and peace but was also a gathering filled with drug usage.
Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little. He was an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist. He led the Nation of Islam. He traveled to Africa. He taught black supremecy and advocated the seperation of black and white Americans and opposed integration. His actions were contrary to the concept of the Civil Rights Movement.
The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the house of representatives. They investigated communisim. The committee focused its investigations on real and suspected communists. In 1947, the committee held hearings against Hollywood actors. The committee had some actors blacklisted.
Rosa Parks was an African American woman who became one of the most famous civil rights activists. In 1955, she refused to obey a bus driver and give up her seat to a white passenger. She spent most of her life fighting for equal rights. She worked with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the NAACP.
Betty Friedan is a leading figure in the women's movement in the United States. She was a writer, activist, and femminist. She founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization of Women. Her main goal was to have women that were considered fully equal with men.
Ronald Reagan was an American Actor who became our 40th president of the United States of America. He was also the Governor of California. Reagan served two consecutive terms as president. His economic policies known as "Reaganomics" advocated reducing tax rates, deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending. He single handedly devistated the air traffic controllers union by having 11,345 striking air traffic controllers fired. He survived an assassination attempt and had the Berlin Wall torn down.