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Nutritional Sciences: From Fundamentals to Food w/ Table of Food Composition Booklet, 2nd Edition

alveolus

A cluster of milk-producing cells that make up the mammary glands.

anorexia of aging

Loss of appetite in the elderly that leads to weight loss and overall physiological decline.

appropriate for gestational age (AGA)

An infant that weighs between the 10th and the 90th percentile for weight for gestational age.

atrophic gastritis

Inflammation of the mucosal membrane that lines the stomach, reducing the number of cells that produce gastric secretions.

blastocyst

Early stage of embryonic development.

cell turnover

The cycle of cell formation and cell breakdown.

colostrum

The first secretion from the breasts after birth that provides nourishment and immunological protection to newborns.

critical period

Period in development when cells and tissue rapidly grow and differentiate to form body structures.

development

Change in the complexity and/or attainment of a function.

developmental origins of adult health and disease

A theory suggesting that conditions during gestational development can alter risk for chronic diseases later in life.

embryo

Early stage of prenatal development following conception up to the end of the eighth week of pregnancy.

embryonic period

The stage of development that extends from conception through the eighth week of pregnancy.

fetal alcohol effect

A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome resulting from maternal consumption of alcohol while pregnant.

fetal alcohol syndrome

Structural and functional birth defects resulting from maternal consumption of alcohol while pregnant.

fetal period

Period of gestation after week 8 through birth.

fetus

The stage of prenatal development from the eighth week of pregnancy through birth.

food bank

Agency that collects donated foods and distributes them to local food pantries, shelters, and soup kitchens.

food insecurity

Having limited or uncertain access to adequate amounts of nutritious, safe foods.

food jag

In young children, a desire for a particular food.

food kitchen

Program that prepares and serves meals to those in need.

food pantry

Program that provides canned, boxed, and sometimes fresh foods directly to individuals in need.

food recovery program

Organization that collects and distributes food that would otherwise be discarded.

Food Stamp Program

A federally funded program, currently known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), that helps low-income households pay for food.

fullterm

Babies born with gestational ages between 37 and 42 weeks.

gerontology

The branch of science and medicine that focuses on health issues of aging.

gestational age

Length of pregnancy, determined by counting the number of weeks between the first day of a woman's last normal menstrual period and birth.

growth

An increase in size and/or number of cells.

intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)

Slow or delayed growth in utero.

lactation

The production and release of milk.

lactogenesis

The onset of milk production.

large for gestational age (LGA)

An infant that weighs more than the 90th percentile for weight for gestational age.

let-down

The movement of milk through the mammary ducts toward the nipple.

life span

Maximum number of years an individual in a particular species has remained alive.

low birth weight (LBW)

An infant that weighs less than 2,500 g at birth.

mammary duct

Structure that transports milk from the secretory cells toward the nipple.

meconium

Dark green, feces-like matter that collects in the intestine of an unborn baby.

menarche

The first time a female menstruates.

menopause

The time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases, usually during the sixth decade of life.

miscarriage

Death of a fetus during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

myoepithelial cells

Muscle cells that surround alveoli and that contract, forcing milk into the mammary ducts.

National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

Federally funded programs that provide free or subsidized nutritious meals to school-age children living in low-income households.

oxytocin

A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the movement of milk into the mammary ducts.

Peace Corps

A federally funded program whereby American volunteers live and work with people in underdeveloped countries.

periconceptional period

Time shortly before and after conception.

perimenopausal

Hormonal changes that precede menopause.

placenta

An organ made up of fetal and maternal tissue that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.

posterm

Baby born with a gestational age greater than 42 weeks.

postpartum amenorrhea

The period after giving birth and before the return of menses.

preterm

A baby born at 37 weeks or less gestation.

prolactin

A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk in alveoli.

puberty

Maturation of the reproductive system.

senescence

The process of aging, during which function diminishes.

small for gestational age (SGA)

An infant that is below the 10th percentile for weight for gestational age.

stunted growth

Delayed or slow growth resulting from chronic undernutrition.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

A federally funded program, formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, that helps low-income households pay for food.

teratogen

Environmental agent that can alter normal cell growth and development, causing a birth defect.

urbanization

A shift in a country's population from primarily rural to urban regions.

zygote

An ovum that has been fertilized by a sperm.

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