Chapter 11, 12, & 13
|size, health, learning ability||There are similarities among all school age children, but also differences that suddenly become significant|
|Middle Childhood||period between early childhood and early adolescence|
|·Size and Shape||-The rate of growth slows down.|
|-Muscles become stronger.||=School-age children can master almost any motor skill|
|-Lung capacity expands.||-Children run faster and exercise longer without breathing more heavily|
|-Physical Activity||+Active play benefits children in every way.|
|+Benefits of sports include|| -less obesity.|
-appreciation of cooperation and fair play.
-improved problem-solving abilities.
-respect for teammates and opponents from many ethnicities and nationalities.
| ·Physical Activity|
-There are also hazards.
| -loss of self-esteem as a result of criticism from teammates or coaches.|
-reinforcement of prejudices
-increases in stress
-time and effort taken away from learning academic skills
|·Neighborhood Games||-play is flexible|
|-selective attention||-ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others|
|automatization||-process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine no longer requires conscious thought|
|• Aptitude:||-Potential to master particular skill or body of knowledge.|
|·IQ tests:||-Tests designed to measure intellectual aptitude.|
|-Achievement Test||-measures proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, etc|
|-Flynn Effect||-rise in average IQ scores over the decades|
|-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children|| --IQ test designed for school-age children.|
-vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, arid spatial comprehension
|Criticisms of IQ Testing:|| -No test can measure potential without also measuring achievement.|
-Every test score reflects the culture of the people who wrote, administer and take it.
-Intellectual potential changes over the life span.
-Humans may have multiple intelligences.
|-Sternberg describes three types of intelligence:||Academic:Creative: Practical:|
|1. Academic:||-measured by IQ and achievement tests|
|Creative:||-evidenced by imaginative endeavors|
|Practical:||-seen in everyday problem solving|
|-Emotional intelligence:||ability to regulate one's emotions and perceptive understanding of other people's feelings|
|-dyslexia||-unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment|
|-autism:||developmental disorder marked by inability to relate to other people normally ·extreme self-absorption·inability to acquire normal speech|
|-autistics spectrum disorder|| : Any of several disorders characterized by inadequate|
social skills and abnormal play.
|-asperger syndrome:|| specific type of autistic spectrum disorder o"high-functioning"|
Unusually intelligent is specific areas Impaired social interaction
|Resource room||-A room in which trained teachers help children with special needs|
|-Inclusion||-An approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular classrooms, with appropriate aids and services.|
|-North American children|| would be considered mentally slow if they could not replicate|
the proper hand, arm, torso and facial positions of a traditional
dance, as this young Indonesian girl does.
|The most influential of all multiple-intelligence theories is Gardner's:|| -Iinguistic|
-interpersonal (social understanding)
-naturalistic (understanding of nature, as in biology, zoology, or farming) *new
-Existential (asking questions about life and death) *new
|Children with Special Needs|| -Children who require extra help in order to learn.|
|Signs of special needs|| -slowness|
|Developmental Psychopathology|| -Uses insights into typical development to understand and treat developmental disorders|
-abnormality is normal
=disability changes year by year
-adulthood may be better or worse
-diagnosis depends on the social cont
|-ADHD|| -great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments|
|-Comorbidity||-presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at same time|
|Learning Disabilities|| -marked delay in particular area of leaning that's not caused by:|
-unusually stressful home environment
|Building on Theory||Theories of cognition in school-age children have been used to structure education.|
|-Concrete operational thought:||-Piaget's term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.|
|-Identity||Certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change.|
|-Reversibility||-A thing that has been changed can sometimes be returned to its original state by reversing the process by which it was changed.|
|-Vygotsky and School-Age Children|| Educators should consider thought process of the child|
Improvement over meaningless acquisition curriculum that dominated education in his day.
|-Vygotsky regarded instruction by others as crucial.|| -Teachers and peers provide bridge between the child's developmental potential and the|
necessary skill and knowledge.
|-In the zone of proximal development, other people are crucial.||-Cultures (tools, customs, people) teach people|
|-Information-processing-theory||-cognition as the functioning of a computer|
|-sensory memory:||-sensory memory: component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occur|
|-long-term memory:|| component of the information-processing system in which|
limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely.
|-Speed and knowledge||-Speed of thinking increases throughout the first two decades of life.|
|Knowledge base||-A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area.|
|·Control processes|| -mechanisms that combine:|
|Language||Language advances rapidly before middle childhood.|
|-By age 6 children have|| mastered most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language.|
-School-age children can learn up to 20 new words a day.
|-School-age children can learn up to||can learn up to 20 new words a day|
|-Language acquisition is helped by increases in:|| -logic|
+speed of thinking
|+vocabulary||School-age children are more flexible and logical in their knowledge and use of vocabulary, understanding metaphors, prefixes, suffixes, and compound words.|
|pragmatics||Advances markedly in middle childhood; the use of language, including communication with varied audiences in different contexts.|
|+English-language learner (ELL)||-A child who is learning English as a second language.|
|- Total immersion|| -A strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (majority)|
language that a child is learning.
|-Bilingual education||·Taught in both original language and the second (majority) language.:|
|·Industry versus inferiority|| -Erikson's fourth developmental crisis|
-master many skills,
-sense of themselves as either:
-industrious or inferior
-competent or incompetent
|nature of school-age children:|| -social comparison|
-appreciation of peers and parents
|-from ages 6 to12:|| +self-criticisrn and self-consciousness rises|
-self-esteem dips for stressed children
|-resilience:|| -capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity|
-dynamic, stable trait
-positive adaptation to stress
=adversity must be significant
|-shared environment||-household influences same for two people·children reared together|
|-nonshared environment||-siblings with different friends and different teachers|
|family structure||-legal and genetic relationship among relatives in the same home-nuclear, extended, step|
|Family function||-how family works to meet needs of its members|
|-Children need family to:|| -provide basic material necessities.|
-nurture peer relationships.
-ensure harmony and stability.
|-Blended family||family that consists of two adults and children of the prior relationships of one or both parents and/or the new partnership|
|-Family Trouble|| -low income and high conflict|
-financial stress and family fighting often feed on each other
|-Family Income||-correlates with function and structure|
|culture of children:||-Particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.|
|-deviancy training:||Children taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults|
|-deviancy training:||-Children taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults|
|aggressive -rejected|| -rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior|
rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, anxious behavior
|-withdrawn-rejected||rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, anxious behavior|
|social cognition||ability to understand social interaction|
|-effortful control||ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination|
|-social efficacy|| ·People come to believe that they can affect their circumstances.•Leads to action that changes the social|
|Kolberg||Stages of moral reasoning|
|Preconventional moral reasoning||rewards and punishments|
|·conventional moral reasoning||Social rules|
|postconventional moral reasoning||-moral principles|