size, health, learning ability
There are similarities among all school age children, but also differences that suddenly become significant
period between early childhood and early adolescence
·Size and Shape
-The rate of growth slows down.
-Muscles become stronger.
=School-age children can master almost any motor skill
-Lung capacity expands.
-Children run faster and exercise longer without breathing more heavily
+Active play benefits children in every way.
+Benefits of sports include
-appreciation of cooperation and fair play.
-improved problem-solving abilities.
-respect for teammates and opponents from many ethnicities and nationalities.
-There are also hazards.
-loss of self-esteem as a result of criticism from teammates or coaches.
-reinforcement of prejudices
-increases in stress
-time and effort taken away from learning academic skills
-play is flexible
-ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others
-process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine no longer requires conscious thought
-Potential to master particular skill or body of knowledge.
-Tests designed to measure intellectual aptitude.
-measures proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, etc
-rise in average IQ scores over the decades
-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
--IQ test designed for school-age children.
-vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, arid spatial comprehension
Criticisms of IQ Testing:
-No test can measure potential without also measuring achievement.
-Every test score reflects the culture of the people who wrote, administer and take it.
-Intellectual potential changes over the life span.
-Humans may have multiple intelligences.
-Sternberg describes three types of intelligence:
-measured by IQ and achievement tests
-evidenced by imaginative endeavors
-seen in everyday problem solving
ability to regulate one's emotions and perceptive understanding of other people's feelings
-unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
developmental disorder marked by inability to relate to other people normally ·extreme self-absorption·inability to acquire normal speech
-autistics spectrum disorder
: Any of several disorders characterized by inadequate
social skills and abnormal play.
specific type of autistic spectrum disorder o"high-functioning"
Unusually intelligent is specific areas Impaired social interaction
-A room in which trained teachers help children with special needs
-An approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular classrooms, with appropriate aids and services.
-North American children
would be considered mentally slow if they could not replicate
the proper hand, arm, torso and facial positions of a traditional
dance, as this young Indonesian girl does.
The most influential of all multiple-intelligence theories is Gardner's:
-interpersonal (social understanding)
-naturalistic (understanding of nature, as in biology, zoology, or farming) *new
-Existential (asking questions about life and death) *new
Children with Special Needs
-Children who require extra help in order to learn.
Signs of special needs
-Uses insights into typical development to understand and treat developmental disorders
-abnormality is normal
=disability changes year by year
-adulthood may be better or worse
-diagnosis depends on the social cont
-great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments
-presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at same time
-marked delay in particular area of leaning that's not caused by:
-unusually stressful home environment
Building on Theory
Theories of cognition in school-age children have been used to structure education.
-Concrete operational thought:
-Piaget's term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
Certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change.
-A thing that has been changed can sometimes be returned to its original state by reversing the process by which it was changed.
-Vygotsky and School-Age Children
Educators should consider thought process of the child
Improvement over meaningless acquisition curriculum that dominated education in his day.
-Vygotsky regarded instruction by others as crucial.
-Teachers and peers provide bridge between the child's developmental potential and the
necessary skill and knowledge.
-In the zone of proximal development, other people are crucial.
-Cultures (tools, customs, people) teach people
-cognition as the functioning of a computer
-sensory memory: component of the information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occur
component of the information-processing system in which
limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely.
-Speed and knowledge
-Speed of thinking increases throughout the first two decades of life.
-A body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area.
-mechanisms that combine:
Language advances rapidly before middle childhood.
-By age 6 children have
mastered most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language.
-School-age children can learn up to 20 new words a day.
-School-age children can learn up to
can learn up to 20 new words a day
-Language acquisition is helped by increases in:
+speed of thinking
School-age children are more flexible and logical in their knowledge and use of vocabulary, understanding metaphors, prefixes, suffixes, and compound words.
Advances markedly in middle childhood; the use of language, including communication with varied audiences in different contexts.
+English-language learner (ELL)
-A child who is learning English as a second language.
- Total immersion
-A strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (majority)
language that a child is learning.
·Taught in both original language and the second (majority) language.:
·Industry versus inferiority
-Erikson's fourth developmental crisis
-master many skills,
-sense of themselves as either:
-industrious or inferior
-competent or incompetent
nature of school-age children:
-appreciation of peers and parents
-from ages 6 to12:
+self-criticisrn and self-consciousness rises
-self-esteem dips for stressed children
-capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity
-dynamic, stable trait
-positive adaptation to stress
=adversity must be significant
-household influences same for two people·children reared together
-siblings with different friends and different teachers
-legal and genetic relationship among relatives in the same home-nuclear, extended, step
-how family works to meet needs of its members
-Children need family to:
-provide basic material necessities.
-nurture peer relationships.
-ensure harmony and stability.
family that consists of two adults and children of the prior relationships of one or both parents and/or the new partnership
-low income and high conflict
-financial stress and family fighting often feed on each other
-correlates with function and structure
culture of children:
-Particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.
Children taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults
-Children taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults
-rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, anxious behavior
rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, anxious behavior
ability to understand social interaction
ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination
·People come to believe that they can affect their circumstances.•Leads to action that changes the social
Stages of moral reasoning
Preconventional moral reasoning
rewards and punishments
·conventional moral reasoning
postconventional moral reasoning