a thickening that usually involves the skin that covers the front of the tibia bone
Hyperthyroidism, high levels of T3 and T4, low TSH
what is looked for in the many test to diagnose Graves' Disease?
Radioactive iodine uptake test (checks thyroid's uptake of iodine)
A unique test for diagnosing Graves' Disease
very rare, life-threatening condition that occurs if overactive thyroid is untreated. Triggered by an acute stress, like trauma, infection, or surgery.
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis (EV)
another name for treeman syndrome
protection from sunlight and x-rays to decrease malignant transformation
How to prevent treeman syndrome?
surgery, nothing really permanent
treatments for treeman syndrome
GI from Mouth to Anus, small intestine (ileum) T CELLS
What does Crohn's Disease effect?
animal protein intake, smoking, hormonal contraception
Environmental factors that affect Crohn's?
Radiologic tests, nuclear scans, blood test
Ways to monitor Crohn's?
inflammation of the heart including pericardium, myocardium and indocardium
bumps the size of peas that occur under the skin, causes subcutaneous nodules
lower blood glucose levels (insulin injections or pump), diet, physically fit, steady weight
How to manage Type I diabetes?
absence of a reflex, a sign of possible nerve damage
destruction of the myelin sheath coating neurons
sequence similarities between foreign and self-peptides are sufficient to result in the cross-activation of autoreactive T/B cells by pathogenderived peptides
is the most commonly implicated causative microbe of GBS
the removal, treatment, and return of blood plasma to reduce antibody levels in a patient
the injection of donor antibodies into a patient
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus, Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr)
Microbes that stimulate GBS
Toxic Shock Syndrome
caused by use of tampons and contraceptives in women, and bacteria entrance through wounds
Anticoagulant therapy (Heparin)
Treatment for Antiphospholipid Antibody syn.
Anticardiolipin antibodies, Lupus anticoagulant, antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein
Common Blood test for Antiphospholipid Antibodies syn.
a condition that has abnormally low amounts of platelets, due to platelets forming clots
the proteins on attaeched to phospholipids on the cell membrane are attacked by antiphospholipid antibodies
injection of B12 (6weeks), oral B12 pills, nasal or sublingual treatments
Treatments of Pernicious Anemia
Stomach cancer and permanent nerve damage
Risk Factors of Pernicious Anemia treatments
90% and 70%
Anti-parietal cell antibodies are found in what % of pernicious patients and anti-intrinsic factors antibodies are found in what % also?
autoimmune disorder of genetic predisposition and associated with human leukocyte antigen and type A blood groups
meat, fish, poultry
foods containing B12/cobalamin
released during digestion to combine with intrinsic factors before absorption into the blood stream
B12's job in the body
maintain nerve cell function, erythrocyte function and production, and DNA synthesis
B12 is used for this in the body
form of megaloblastic anemia that results in abnormally large red blood cells due to loss of B12
synthetic adrenal corticosteroid
an immunosuppressant medication
cures or controls certain types of cancer and prevention of rejection in organ transplants
soluble TNF-alpha receptor blocker
inflammation of blood vessels
a small-vessel vasculitis
c-ANCA and p-ANCA
2 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that deal with Wegener's Granulomatosis
directly against proteinase 3 and is relatively sensitive and highly specific for Wegeners'
directly against myeloperoxidase and is not specific, but has been seen in some wegeners patients