______ is a hormone released by intestinal cells in the duodenum. It stimulates secretion of bile and pancreatic enzymes.
amount present in food/recommended amount
How is the % daily value calculated on a nutrition facts label?
personalization, variety, activity
What are 3 themes contained within Mypyramid icon?
absorption and digestion
Name the 2 functions of the small intestine.
angtiotensin II and ADH
Name 2 hormones that regulate water balance.
absorption of water and elimination
Name the functions of the large intestine.
The enzyme ______ is secreted by chief cells in the gastric pits of the stomach. It cleaves proteins by enzyme hydrolysis.
secondary active transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion
Name 3 mechanisms by which nutrients are absorbed from the enterocytes in the small intestine.
ingestion, breakdown, absorption, elimination
What are the 4 stages of digestion?
How are lipids absorbed into the cells of the small intestine?
How are lipids transported from the enterocyte to the lymphatic system?
The ____ senses the levels of nutrients in the blood and distributes them accordingly.
lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
Name 6 nutrients:
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
Name 3 mechanisms involved in urine formation:
supply energy, spare protein for tissue synthesis and repair, synthesize nonessential amino acids
Name 3 functions of carbohydrates in the body:
PFK, pyruvate kinase, hexokinase
What enzymes regulate glycolysis?
The enzyme hexokinase traps glucose in a call by _______.
energy investment and pay-off
Name the 2 phases of glycolysis:
glycogen synthase, glycogenin
The enzyme that regulates glycogenesis is called ______. Before it can add glucose monomers together the enzyme ______ must first build a small glucose polymer.
environmental signal, hormonal signal, signal cascade of proteins, regulation of metabolic enzyme, regulation of metabolic pathway
How does a signal from the environment regulate a metabolic pathway?
In the stomach, proteins are broken down by the enzyme ________.
The enzyme _______ regulates fatty acid breakdown. It is inhibited by the molecule ______ so that the processes of fatty acid breakdown and synthesis do not occur at the same time.
The biosynthesis of amino acids is regulated by ______.
mitochondrial matrix, beta oxidation
Fatty acids are broken down in the cellular compartment called the ______ by the process of ________.
fat storage, energy source, protective buffer to tissues
Name 3 functions of lipids:
Oxidative stress, which causes protein, lipid, and DNA damage
What happens when oxidants and antioxidants are not in balance?
Acetyl CoA, liver
Cholesterol is synthesized from the molecule _____ in the _______.
The enzyme ______ regulates cholesterol synthesis and is the target for the statin drugs which reduce cholesterol levels.
To maintain setpoint and regulate energy balances
What is the overall function of the neuronal, nutrient, and hormonal pathways involved in feeding control?
What enzyme is the energy sensor in both the brain and peripheral tissues?
The essential mineral _____ is required for the production of thyroid hormones.
inactivation of adenosine receptors
What is the primary mechanism by which caffeine exerts its effects on the body?
NAD and NADPH
What coenzymes are generated from niacin?
What is the primary enzymatic function of vitamin B7 (biotin)?
What factor is secreted by the stomach that is required for B12 absorption?
What enzymatic function do vitamin C enzymes perform?
Hydroxylation in the liver and kidney produces the active hormone
Describe the metabolic activation of vitamin D:
enhances bone resorption which causes more Ca in the blood
How does vitamin D increase serum calcium concentrations?
oxidative damage to lipids
What is lipid peroxidation?
oxidative degredation of lipids, reduces a radical and NOT an oxidant.
How does vitamin E terminate lipid peroxidation?
LDL binds to arterial wall, oxidative stress causes lipid peroxidation, lipid peroxidation damages lipids and apoproteins, macrophages detect and eat oxidized LDLs, dead macrophages and lipids contribute to plaque formation
How does lipid peroxidation contribute to the development of atherosclerosis?
What enzymatic function requires vitamin K?
What is the primary regulator of parathyroid hormone?
symport mechanism; facilitated diffusion (exits via Na-K pump)
How does Na enter the enterocyte?
increase water reabsorption and aquaporins
How does ADH maintain Na balance?
increases Na reabsorption by increasing Na channels
How does aldosterone maintain Na balance?
iron sensing proteins regulate the transcription of factors that regulate iron homeostasis
How does iron regulate its own absorption, transport, and storage?
promotes vision, cell differentiation, bone metabolism
3 functions of vitamin A:
initiation, propagation, termination
3 steps of lipid peroxidation:
bone formation, muscle contraction, energy generation
What are 3 main functions of minerals?
ADH, Angiotensin II, Aldosterone
Name 3 hormones that regulate Na homeostasis.
iron absorption, synthesis of carnitine, collagen synthesis
What are 3 functions of vitamin C?
red blood cell formation and nerve function
Name 2 functions of coenzyme A:
food storage, food liquification, host defense
Name 3 functions of the stomach:
gastric secretions and movement
Describe two ways gastric motility is regulated in the stomach.
National Academy Science Institute of Medicine
What institute develops dietary reference intakes?
A ____ barrier is one mechanism by which the stomach protects itself from a very low pH environment.
pancreatic lipase, trypsin
Name 2 components of pancreatic juice.