functions of male reproductive system
1. produce gametes (sperm cells)
2. regulate temperature of testes
3. nourish & care for spermatozoa
4. transportation of spermatozoa
5. production of hormones
sac-like structure that contains the testes?
what two muscles contract in response to temperature extremes (cold) or shock?
dartos muscle & cremaster muscle
where is dartos muscle located?
layer of smooth muscle surrounding the scrotum
where is cremaster muscle located?
extends from abdominal muscles to scrotum
male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones?
what cord pulls the developing testes into the scrotum, prior to birth?
through which structure do the testes descend to reach the scrotum?
where in is testosterone secreted?
from connective tissue in testes which contain endocrine cells
what results when a portion of the small intestine protrudes into the inguinal canal?
failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops is called?
what is the connective tissue capsule containing the testes?
what is the site of spermatogenesis?
seminiferous tubules in the testes
how are the seminiferous tubules organized within the testes?
contained in LOBULES (300-400 per testis), which are divided by SEPTA
what cells are responsible for testosterone production, and where are they found?
LEYDIG (interstitial) cells; found in loose connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules
network of tubules that drain the seminiferous tubules?
ducts of testes that drain sperm from rete testis into epididymis
what structure is responsible for the maturation, storage and transport of spermatozoa?
where is the epididymis located?
posterior surface of testis
where does the epididymis drain into?
ductus (vas) deferens
location of ductus deferens?
ascends from tail of epididymis through spermatic cord to prostatic urethra, terminates in ejaculatory duct
what two structures form the ejaculatory duct?
ampulla of ductus deferens & duct of seminal vesicle
where does the ejaculatory duct open into?
how are sperm propelled through the ductus deferens to the prostatic urethra?
what are the four parts of the male urethra?
1. prostatic urethra
2. membranous urethra
3. spongy urethra
4. external urethral orifice
function of the male urethra?
passageway for urine and reproductive fluids
what portion of the urethra passes through the prostate gland?
what are the three columns of erectile tissue found in the penis?
1. corpora cavernosa (2), forming dorsum and sides of penis
2. corpora spongiosum (1), forming ventral portion of penis
what is the cap on distal end of penis?
loose fold of skin covering glans penis is?
erection is controlled by what nervous system?
ejaculation is controlled by what nervous system?
what three exocrine glands secrete material into the ducts of the reproductive tract?
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands
location & function of seminal vesicles?
- located next to ampulla of ductus deferens, joins to form ejaculatory duct which projects into prostate gland
- functions: produce mucous-like secretion that nourishes sperm cells & help in coagulation of semen
location & function of prostate gland?
- walnut-sized gland at base of urinary bladder, surrounds prostatic urethra
- functions: produce thin milky secretion that neutralize acidic urethra and vagina, help in coagulation of semen
location & function of bulbourethral glands?
- small glands located on either side of near membranous urethra
- functions: produce mucous secretion prior to ejaculation, cleanses & neutralizes acidic urethra, lubrication during intercourse, neutralizes vaginal acidity
what are the two hormone secreting cells in the testes, and what hormones do they secrete?
1. Leydig cells - testosterone
2. Sertoli (sustentacular) cells - androgens, estrogens, inhibins
what are the 3 functions of the Sertoli cells?
1. provide nourishment to germ cells
2. secretion of hormones
3. form blood-testis barrier (isolates sperm, which carry surface antigens, from immune system response)
what cells divide and differentiate to form sperm cells?
germ cells that line the seminiferous tubules? haploid or diploid?
what do spermatogenic give rise to? haploid or diploid?
primary spermatocytes; diploid
what process do primary spermatocytes undergo to produce secondary spermatocytes?
secondary spermatocytes are haploid/diploid?
what results from second meiotic division?
four haploid spermatids, which differentiate to become sperm cells
mature sperm cells are called? haploid or diploid?