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genetic code

the code stored on DNA, and is made up of nucleotides

RNA polymerase

transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together

Transcription

make RNA from DNA-occurs in nucleus so DNA can go out

mRNA

the RNA thats made from transcribing DNA. It contains the message on how to make protein

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

rRNA

makes up structure of ribosome (makes up approx. 80% of RNA in your cells)

Processing

the primary RNA transcript gets cut down by approx. 20% before leaving the nucleus

Splicing

The process of removing introns and rejoining cut ends.

mG Cap

the name of the cap that goes on the RNA after it is spliced

Poly-a Tail

A string of several hundred adenine nucletodies added to the 3' end of the eukaryotic mRNA.

exons

the remaining parts of the RNA that are spliced (after the removal of the introns) to form functional mRNA called (?)

introns

noncoding segments that are cut out when mRNA is processed

translation

read RNA to make a protein- occurs in ribosomes

ribosome

small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein

Codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

anticodon

a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules

protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

point mutation

changes ONE triplet on DNA, resulting in a single codon change, which may or may not affect the resulting protein

frame shift mutation

one or more nucleotides are added or removed from the DNA, which causes a shuffling and re-organization of every triplet following the mutation. this results in multiple codon changes, and inevitably a different-looking protein.

deletion

1 or more nucleotides are deleted (frameshift mutation)

substitution

1 nucleotide is substituted for another (point mutation)

insertion

1 or more nucleotides are inserted into DNA (either point or frameshift mutation)

missense mutation

a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. this can render the resulting protein nonfunctional.

nonsense mutation

changes an amino acid to a premature stop codon, rendering the resulting protein nonfunctional

silent mutation

code for the same amino acid, and do not affect the resulting protein

epigenome

deciding factor for the gene

lytic

a viral infection that destroys cells

lysogenic

a viral infection that can remain dormant in cells, and may later become lytic.

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