Pathology Study Guide #5 - Final Unit Test

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Pathology Study Guide #5, irbravox2, isla bravo

Endometritis

inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus

Urethra

The shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary systems - a passageway for both semen and urine

Endometriosis

When uterine cells grow outside the uterus

Endocervicitis

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine cervix

Salpingitis

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes from the ovary to the uterus

Oophoritis

Inflammation of the ovary

Ovaries

Paired glands that resemble unshelled almonds in size and shape are

Vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina

Ovulation

The process in which a large fluid-filled Graafian follicle ruptures and expels a secondary oocyte

Fundus

A dome-shaped portion of the uterus superior to the uterine tubes

Endometrium

The inner layer of the uterus is called the

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are the most common _____ _____ _____ in women

Name some examples of STDs

Gonorrhea, Herpes, Chlamydia & Syphilis

Ectopic pregnancy

when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus

Eclampsia

The occurrence of Toxemia & HBP during pregnancy

What kinds of bizarre things can be found in a dermoid cyst

Hair, teeth, bone, thyroid, etc

Prostate gland

A single doughnut shaped gland about the size of a golf ball - inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra is the

Orchitis

Inflammation of one or both testes

Mumps

What viral infection can cause this and sometimes cause sterility in males

Cryptorchism

Undescended testicle

Hydrocele

Soft painless fluid filled in swelling in scrotum

Prostatitis

Acute inflammation of the prostate gland

If the prostate gland is hypertrophied, what does that mean

It's enlarged

206

How many total bones in the adult human skeleton

80

How many bones in the axial skeleton

Skeletal system

The entire framework of bones and their cartilages together constitutes the

Osteology

The study of bones

Periosteum

The outer layer of all bones

Compact bone

Few spaces, strongest axial or Bulk of large bone resist

Osteoporosis

Increased perocity of bone-loss or abnormally fragile

A joint in the anatomical sense

point of contact between two bones

What is the difference between synarthrosis, diarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis

Synarthrosis - immoveable joint;
Diarthrosis - freely moveable joint such as knee;
Amphiarthrosis - limited movement joint such as vertebrae

Purpose of synovial fluid

Reduce friction, absorb shock, supplies oxygen & nutrients

Osteomalacia

The softening or decalcification in bones

Ossification

The process by which bones are formed

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of the bones

What is rickets? When does it occur?

Deficientcy disease when bones do not harden. Mainly seen in children

Arthritis

Inflammation of one or more joints

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa. Fluid- filled sac that lies between a tendon or skin

4 types of fractures:

Compound Fractures- Fracture in which the bone is sticking through the skin
Comminuted Fracture- A fracture in which broken, splintered, or crushed into many pieces
Greenstick Fracture- A fracture in which one side of a bone Is broken while the other is bent (seen mostly in children)
Simple Fracture- Break involving the entire width of the bone

Pathologic fracture

Can occur spontaneously when bones are diseased (FREEBIE)

Achondroplasia

No cartilage formation /dwarfism

Compare and contrast Scoliosis, Kyphosis, and Lordosis

Scoliosis- abnormal curvature in the spine like an "S". Uneven shoulders and hips
Kyphosis- Causing a hunchback or slouching posture. Thoracic/ Kuasimoto
Lordosis- is exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine

Paget's disease

What disease causes overproduction of bone in the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis

Osteosarcoma

What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the bone

Malformations

Often you see _____ (postmortem) in patients who have died with diseases of the bones and joints

Acromegaly

Excessive production of human growth hormone after puberty is called

Islets of Langerhan's / pancreas

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease dealing with a malfunction of the _____ _____ _____ in the_____

Hyperglycemia

Another term for Diabetes Mellitus

Artheroscloerosis

A common complication of diabetes mellitus is

Hyperglycemia / Diabetes mellititus

When glucose, in the absence of insulin, cannot enter the cells and is greatly increased in the blood, the condition is known as

Hypothyroidism (cretinism)

A deficiency in the secretion of the thyroid gland is called

Acromegaly

_____ is a disease resulting from over activity of the Pituitary gland

Gigantism (before puberty) & Acromegaly (after puberty)

Excessive growth hormone, result of hyperpituitarism, results in

Dwarfism

Hypopituataryism in children

Diabetes Insipidus

Disease characterized by excessive thirst and urination- due to hyposecretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland is called

Diseases associated with this thyroid gland

Grave's Disease, Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Myxedema, Goiter

Myxedema

Atrophy of the thyroid gland in adults may result in

Cretinism

congenital deficiency of the thyroid hormone known as Thyroxine is not synthesized

Myxedema

A deficiency of thyroxine due to severe hypothyroidism leads to

Bulging eyeballs or goiter (enlargement of thyroid)

What is the manifestation of Grave's disease anatomically

Hyperthyroidism

Grave's disease is caused by

Goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

Iodine

Insufficient _____ in the diet is usually the cause of endemic goiter

Hypoparathyroidism

The principal manifestation of _____ is tetany

Hyperparathyroidism raises the level of _____ above normal limits

Calcium (In Donna's packet on pg 13 it says it decreases Calcium and raises Phosphorus, BUT on every google site it says raises Calcium)

Addison's Disease / bronzing

Chronic hypoadrenalism is called _____. It manifests itself by a characteristic _____ of the skin

Cushing's disease

Hyperadrenalism which causes an excess of glucocorticoid hormone leads to _____

Cushing syndrome

A disease characterized by obesity and muscular weakness associated with abnormal function the adrenal gland is _____ _____

Acute adrenal insufficiency caused by hemorrhage into the adrenal gland _____ _____ _____. Primarily the result of a _____ infection

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome / Meningococcal

Skin, Hair & Nails

What comprises the integumentary system

Epidermis

The superficial, thinner portion of our skin is called

Melanin

Yellow-red or black-brown pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs UV rays

Carotene

A yellow-orange pigment that gives egg yolks and carrots their color....necessary for vision

Acne

A skin condition that is usually due to hormonal changes after puberty

Oil glands

Sebaceous glands are also known as

Albinism

What is the condition known as when you are unable to produce melanin

Abcesses

Boils or furuncles; small solitary ones sometimes appear on the skin

Chancre

The characteristic lesion of syphilis found on the skin

Seborrheic dermatitis

What is dandruff also know as

Melanocytic nevus (mole)

2 FREEBIES- The neoplastic growth of melanocytes causes an excessive production of melanin, resulting in a/an

Malignant Melanoma

The most serious skin cancer (from melanocytes of the epidermis)

Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignancy of keratinocytes in the epidermis

What are some of the functions of the skin

1) Protection for internal organs from the outside environment
2) Protection from the loss of internal fluids/dehydration
3) Maintenance of homeostasis, in terms of body overall temperature regulation
4) Excretion of some waste products via the sebacecuos glands and sweat glands
5) Maintenance of the sites for reception of external cutaneous sensations
6) Serves as a blood reservior
7) The skin does some metabolic functions 8) Synthesis of Vitamin D

Tonsillitis

Inflammation of the tonsils, lymphnode in throat

Lymphoma

These include several types of malignancies of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissue

Lymphangitis

Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels

Lymphedema

A condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system

Hodgkin's disease

A malignant disease of the lymph-node

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Lymphomas that arise directly from the thymus gland

Swelling, Edema, Emaciation & Metastisize

some postmortem conditions associated with diseases of the lymphatic system-Interference with

Splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

Synarthrosis

Immoveable joint

Diarthrosis

Freely moveable joint (knee)

Amphiarthrosis

Limited movement joint (vertebrae)

scoliosis

abnormal curvature in the spine liking "S". Uneven shoulders and hips

Kyphosis

In thoracic area; a hunchback or slouching posture

Lordosis

exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine

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