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Long Term Causes of WWI

Imperialism, Nationalism, Militariasm and Alliance System

2 types of Nationalism

1. Love of Country
2. Desire for Autonomy

Measures of Civilization

1. Materialistic ( high S.O.L, technology)
2. Knowledge ( Scientific vs Superstitious)
3. Moral Ideal ( Not barbarian)
4. Qualitative measures ( death rate, GDP, mortality rate)

Inner Zone

GB, Belgium, Germany, France, Northern Italy, West Austrian Empire
(industry, railroad, wealth education )

Outer Zone

Ireland, Spain, S. Italy , E. Germany, E. Austria Hungary, S. USA
(poorer, more illiterate, agriculture, scientific thought borrowed)

Third Zone

Third world countries heavily dependant on Europe

Catagories of Imperialism

A. Old
B. New
C. Major
D.Bad

Old imperialism

money more important than land, Netherlands, Spain, Portugual.

New Imperialism

Germany, Italy, USA ( started to imperialize more)

Major Imperialism

GB and France had a lot of Colonies

Bad

Belguim ( King Leopold and the rubber in congo, forced labor)

technological, economic, political, social

Causes of Imperialism

Technological cause of Imperialism

steamboat, railroad, vaccines allowed for Europeans to travel new lands quicker and safer.

Economic cause of Imperialism

Europeans needed markets for goods. so they looked towards non-European colonies

Political cause of Imperialism

used colonies for national security, nationalism, military power, distraction from domestic issues, strategic locations

Social cause of Imperialism

colonies helped with population increase and spread of religion "White mans burden"

German Downfall

A. USA Entrance in WWI B. British Blockade of Germany C. Domestic strain of War in Germany

Treaty of Versailles

A. Alsace- Lorraine returned to France
B. Germany loses all colonies
C. Poland restored as Independant country
D.Danzig becomes free city administrated by League of Nations
E.War guilt clause for Germany ( massive reparations)
F. Limit German military in Rhineland

Democracy gave way to Anarchy, Lenin and Trotsky superior leadership, Appealed to soldiers and workers

Reasons why Bolsheviks came to power

Berlin Conference

1. "Effective Occupation"
2. No European Nation can claim continent
3. Leopolds rule over Congo recognized
4. work to stop slavery and slave trade

Ultimatum AH to Serbia

1. Stop AH propaganda in Serbia
2. Eliminate terrorist group Against AH
3. investigate assasination suspects
4. AH basically gains control of serbian state

Boer War

Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.

Fashoda Crisis

military confrontation between Great Britain and France in the Sudan in 1898

Berlin Conference

A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa

Khartoum

1885 Egyptians led by GB vs Muslims , Muslims broke into city and pushed back GB

Omdurman

1898 British and Natives fight ( GB commanded by Kitchner) demonstrated superiority of Europeans

Russo-Japanese War

Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.

Annexation of Korea

Japan annexed Korea and where harsh rulers, they took away Korean culture and replaced it with Japanese culture and citizens

Opium War

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. ( China did not have an open trade GB smuggled opium to "open" China)

Treaty of Nanking

Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

Blank Check

Germany swears to support Austria-Hungary in any actions it takes against Serbia

Russian Mobilization

Decides to Protect Serbian cousins and slavic people

1st Battle of Marne

French were determined to defeat the Germans. Sent all soldiers from Paris to fight. They commandeered over 600 taxicabs to transport soldiers to front. W/in 4 days Germans begin to retreat. Most impt. battle of WWI b/c Germans realize they can't win war easily and have to fight French and Russians at same time in a 2 front war.

Battle of Verdun

Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.

Morocco Crisis

1911 - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.

2nd Battle of Marne

final phase of the war. allied offense that tried to drive germans out of the land

Great Rebellion

1857: Sepoys rebel against rumors that bullets were covered in fat.

Sino-Japanese War

(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China. China lost.

Hundred Days Reform

Qing attempted at comprehensive reform that said must move beyond self-strengthening movement and reform like Meiji did in Japan and create railways, banks and postal service

1st Balkan War

Serbia quarralled with Bulgaria over Spoils of War

2nd Balkan War

Austria Forces Serbia to give up Albania

Easter Rebellion

(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support

Treaty of Brest-Livtovsk

1/3 of Russian Population sliced away by Germans, making Russia exit WWI

March Revolution

Petrograd Soviets took power from Provisional Government

Dwarf Economy

term coined by Friedrich List. German peasants felt trapped by tiny landholdings and declining craft industries

Great White Walls

European laws outside of Europe that halted Asian immigration to various regions such as Australia and the United States

14 points

Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.

Cecil Rhodes

Wanted to expand from Cape to Ciaro, S to N. British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe

King Leopold II

King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

young heir whose assassination triggered the first WW

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Nicholas II

Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin

Rasputin

Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)

Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Trotsky

A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.

Kerensky

leader of the provisional government

General Kitchener

british general that was sent with an expeditionary force to put an end to one of the most serious threats to european domination in africa. defeated mahdist cavalry at battle of omdurman in 1898

Treitschke

Says that Nations that do not participate in Imperialism will be left behind

Kipling

wrote the "White Man's Burden" about the job of whites to educate/populate the world

Hobson

1902, Critic of imperialism, publishes the first significant study of imperialism. Argues that it is part of larger capitalist enterprises, but that is not good for economy in general. First to write about the human costs

Joseph Conrad

Critic of imperialism wrote about "pure selfishness" of Europeans "civilizing" Africa

George Clemenceau

French Premier who wanted Germany stripped of all weapons vast German payments for costs of war, separate Rhineland to serve as buffer state.

Walter Ratheneu

When war began he convinced government to ser up rations of materials and distribute them equally

David Lloyd George

Representative for GB in treaty of Verailled wanted to resume trade

Woodrow Wilson

Representative for USA in treaty of Versailles, 14 points

Orlando

Representative for Italy in Treaty of Versailles wanted more land

Clemeneau

Representative for France in Treaty of Versailles wanted to Punish Germany and National security

Cheka

secret police, formed by Lenin

Stalin

Advocates socialism in one country rather than "permanent revolution"

Collectivization

system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.

Gulags

Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia (Siberia). Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.

Kulaks

The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags

Matthew Perry

Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa

Afrikaners

The descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony

Three Emperor's League

a conservative alliance formed by Bismarck in 1873 to link the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany against radical movements ( also to prevent conflict and keep France isolated)

Triple Entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Army Order No. 1

a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of communist soldiers. Lead to Collapse of Army Discipline

Constituent Assembly

a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Balfour Declaration

British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI

Five year Plan

Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine

New Economic Policy

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.)

Walter Rathenau

Jewish industrialist who set up War Raw Materials Board--rationing materials for war

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