Long Term Causes of WWI
Imperialism, Nationalism, Militariasm and Alliance System
2 types of Nationalism
1. Love of Country
2. Desire for Autonomy
Measures of Civilization
1. Materialistic ( high S.O.L, technology)
2. Knowledge ( Scientific vs Superstitious)
3. Moral Ideal ( Not barbarian)
4. Qualitative measures ( death rate, GDP, mortality rate)
GB, Belgium, Germany, France, Northern Italy, West Austrian Empire
(industry, railroad, wealth education )
Ireland, Spain, S. Italy , E. Germany, E. Austria Hungary, S. USA
(poorer, more illiterate, agriculture, scientific thought borrowed)
Third world countries heavily dependant on Europe
Catagories of Imperialism
money more important than land, Netherlands, Spain, Portugual.
Germany, Italy, USA ( started to imperialize more)
GB and France had a lot of Colonies
Belguim ( King Leopold and the rubber in congo, forced labor)
technological, economic, political, social
Causes of Imperialism
Technological cause of Imperialism
steamboat, railroad, vaccines allowed for Europeans to travel new lands quicker and safer.
Economic cause of Imperialism
Europeans needed markets for goods. so they looked towards non-European colonies
Political cause of Imperialism
used colonies for national security, nationalism, military power, distraction from domestic issues, strategic locations
Social cause of Imperialism
colonies helped with population increase and spread of religion "White mans burden"
A. USA Entrance in WWI B. British Blockade of Germany C. Domestic strain of War in Germany
Treaty of Versailles
A. Alsace- Lorraine returned to France
B. Germany loses all colonies
C. Poland restored as Independant country
D.Danzig becomes free city administrated by League of Nations
E.War guilt clause for Germany ( massive reparations)
F. Limit German military in Rhineland
Democracy gave way to Anarchy, Lenin and Trotsky superior leadership, Appealed to soldiers and workers
Reasons why Bolsheviks came to power
1. "Effective Occupation"
2. No European Nation can claim continent
3. Leopolds rule over Congo recognized
4. work to stop slavery and slave trade
Ultimatum AH to Serbia
1. Stop AH propaganda in Serbia
2. Eliminate terrorist group Against AH
3. investigate assasination suspects
4. AH basically gains control of serbian state
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
military confrontation between Great Britain and France in the Sudan in 1898
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
1885 Egyptians led by GB vs Muslims , Muslims broke into city and pushed back GB
1898 British and Natives fight ( GB commanded by Kitchner) demonstrated superiority of Europeans
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Annexation of Korea
Japan annexed Korea and where harsh rulers, they took away Korean culture and replaced it with Japanese culture and citizens
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. ( China did not have an open trade GB smuggled opium to "open" China)
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Germany swears to support Austria-Hungary in any actions it takes against Serbia
Decides to Protect Serbian cousins and slavic people
1st Battle of Marne
French were determined to defeat the Germans. Sent all soldiers from Paris to fight. They commandeered over 600 taxicabs to transport soldiers to front. W/in 4 days Germans begin to retreat. Most impt. battle of WWI b/c Germans realize they can't win war easily and have to fight French and Russians at same time in a 2 front war.
Battle of Verdun
Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
1911 - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
2nd Battle of Marne
final phase of the war. allied offense that tried to drive germans out of the land
1857: Sepoys rebel against rumors that bullets were covered in fat.
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China. China lost.
Hundred Days Reform
Qing attempted at comprehensive reform that said must move beyond self-strengthening movement and reform like Meiji did in Japan and create railways, banks and postal service
1st Balkan War
Serbia quarralled with Bulgaria over Spoils of War
2nd Balkan War
Austria Forces Serbia to give up Albania
(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support
Treaty of Brest-Livtovsk
1/3 of Russian Population sliced away by Germans, making Russia exit WWI
Petrograd Soviets took power from Provisional Government
term coined by Friedrich List. German peasants felt trapped by tiny landholdings and declining craft industries
Great White Walls
European laws outside of Europe that halted Asian immigration to various regions such as Australia and the United States
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Wanted to expand from Cape to Ciaro, S to N. British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
young heir whose assassination triggered the first WW
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.
leader of the provisional government
british general that was sent with an expeditionary force to put an end to one of the most serious threats to european domination in africa. defeated mahdist cavalry at battle of omdurman in 1898
Says that Nations that do not participate in Imperialism will be left behind
wrote the "White Man's Burden" about the job of whites to educate/populate the world
1902, Critic of imperialism, publishes the first significant study of imperialism. Argues that it is part of larger capitalist enterprises, but that is not good for economy in general. First to write about the human costs
Critic of imperialism wrote about "pure selfishness" of Europeans "civilizing" Africa
French Premier who wanted Germany stripped of all weapons vast German payments for costs of war, separate Rhineland to serve as buffer state.
When war began he convinced government to ser up rations of materials and distribute them equally
David Lloyd George
Representative for GB in treaty of Verailled wanted to resume trade
Representative for USA in treaty of Versailles, 14 points
Representative for Italy in Treaty of Versailles wanted more land
Representative for France in Treaty of Versailles wanted to Punish Germany and National security
secret police, formed by Lenin
Advocates socialism in one country rather than "permanent revolution"
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia (Siberia). Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
The well off peasants who were starved or shipped to the gulags
Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa
The descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony
Three Emperor's League
a conservative alliance formed by Bismarck in 1873 to link the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany against radical movements ( also to prevent conflict and keep France isolated)
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Army Order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of communist soldiers. Lead to Collapse of Army Discipline
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Five year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.)
Jewish industrialist who set up War Raw Materials Board--rationing materials for war