Measures of Civilization
1. Materialistic ( high S.O.L, technology)
2. Knowledge ( Scientific vs Superstitious)
3. Moral Ideal ( Not barbarian)
4. Qualitative measures ( death rate, GDP, mortality rate)
GB, Belgium, Germany, France, Northern Italy, West Austrian Empire
(industry, railroad, wealth education )
Ireland, Spain, S. Italy , E. Germany, E. Austria Hungary, S. USA
(poorer, more illiterate, agriculture, scientific thought borrowed)
Technological cause of Imperialism
steamboat, railroad, vaccines allowed for Europeans to travel new lands quicker and safer.
Economic cause of Imperialism
Europeans needed markets for goods. so they looked towards non-European colonies
Political cause of Imperialism
used colonies for national security, nationalism, military power, distraction from domestic issues, strategic locations
Social cause of Imperialism
colonies helped with population increase and spread of religion "White mans burden"
A. USA Entrance in WWI B. British Blockade of Germany C. Domestic strain of War in Germany
Treaty of Versailles
A. Alsace- Lorraine returned to France
B. Germany loses all colonies
C. Poland restored as Independant country
D.Danzig becomes free city administrated by League of Nations
E.War guilt clause for Germany ( massive reparations)
F. Limit German military in Rhineland
Democracy gave way to Anarchy, Lenin and Trotsky superior leadership, Appealed to soldiers and workers
Reasons why Bolsheviks came to power
1. "Effective Occupation"
2. No European Nation can claim continent
3. Leopolds rule over Congo recognized
4. work to stop slavery and slave trade
Ultimatum AH to Serbia
1. Stop AH propaganda in Serbia
2. Eliminate terrorist group Against AH
3. investigate assasination suspects
4. AH basically gains control of serbian state
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
1898 British and Natives fight ( GB commanded by Kitchner) demonstrated superiority of Europeans
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Annexation of Korea
Japan annexed Korea and where harsh rulers, they took away Korean culture and replaced it with Japanese culture and citizens
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. ( China did not have an open trade GB smuggled opium to "open" China)
Treaty of Nanking
Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
1st Battle of Marne
French were determined to defeat the Germans. Sent all soldiers from Paris to fight. They commandeered over 600 taxicabs to transport soldiers to front. W/in 4 days Germans begin to retreat. Most impt. battle of WWI b/c Germans realize they can't win war easily and have to fight French and Russians at same time in a 2 front war.
Battle of Verdun
Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
1911 - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
2nd Battle of Marne
final phase of the war. allied offense that tried to drive germans out of the land
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China. China lost.
Hundred Days Reform
Qing attempted at comprehensive reform that said must move beyond self-strengthening movement and reform like Meiji did in Japan and create railways, banks and postal service
(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support
term coined by Friedrich List. German peasants felt trapped by tiny landholdings and declining craft industries
Great White Walls
European laws outside of Europe that halted Asian immigration to various regions such as Australia and the United States
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Wanted to expand from Cape to Ciaro, S to N. British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.
british general that was sent with an expeditionary force to put an end to one of the most serious threats to european domination in africa. defeated mahdist cavalry at battle of omdurman in 1898
1902, Critic of imperialism, publishes the first significant study of imperialism. Argues that it is part of larger capitalist enterprises, but that is not good for economy in general. First to write about the human costs
French Premier who wanted Germany stripped of all weapons vast German payments for costs of war, separate Rhineland to serve as buffer state.
When war began he convinced government to ser up rations of materials and distribute them equally
Representative for France in Treaty of Versailles wanted to Punish Germany and National security
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia (Siberia). Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
Three Emperor's League
a conservative alliance formed by Bismarck in 1873 to link the conservative monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany against radical movements ( also to prevent conflict and keep France isolated)
Army Order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of communist soldiers. Lead to Collapse of Army Discipline
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Five year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.)