abnormal exam chapter 18

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abnormal psy

the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is

13%

why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep

because the brain is active, unlike stage 4

children are more likely than the elderly to experience

sleep terrors

regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that

they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants

what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly

as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase

to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to

health

an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is

psychodynamic

the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is

antidepressants

as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse

increases

studies of the "oldest old" show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e

healthier, clearer minded and agile

those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to

declining health or financial status

a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is

they don't believe they have a problem

among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to

delirium

the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic

late life improvement

an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from

delusional disorder

an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting

delusional disorder

a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional

memory dificulties

a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called

delirium

an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be

Alzheimer's disease

the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include

significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language

Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from

dementia

Alzheimer's is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______

disease...injury

Alzheimer's is named for the first person to _____ the disease

identify

a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia

less than 5%

the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is

Alzheimer's disease

the typical patter of Alzheimer's for the patient is

denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency

your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed on the basis of

neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

what are neurofibrillary tangles

twisted protein fibers in brain

older individuals with Alzheimer's disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer's disease in that they

have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles

sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are called

senile plaques

a person who has Alzheimer's although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing

senile plaques

the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer's is transmitted genetically in families that

transmit mutations

research on the cause of Alzheimer's disease has led to the conclusion that

they don't know

a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with

long-term memory

a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with

procedural memory

a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer's would be likely to have

cell breakdown and death

a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer's would be likely to have

family history and brain disease

someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the

diencephalon

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory

prefrontal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory

temporal lobe

you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory

diencephalon

when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced

protein

a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be

declarative memory problems

an individual with retrograde amnesia

can't remember things that happened in the long term

people with amnestic disorders

have often had an injury of some sort

an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of

retrograde amnesia

Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from

anterograde amnesia

what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause

severe anterograde amnesia

about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems

50%

elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer's patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease

zinc

recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain

triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein

when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks

itself

the fact that Alzheimer's disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer's may be caused by

a slow acting virus

a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be

vascular dementia

Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from

multiple infractions

a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing

vascular dementia

which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes

picks disease

lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has

Huntington's disease

an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is

Parkinson's disease

dementia is also associated with

AIDS

someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing

dementia

if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer's, you would be most disturbed to find

reduced hypocampus activity

if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely

to develop Alzheimer's disease or dementia

which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias

drugs

the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective

biological

the drug tacrine acts through

preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine

recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of "mad cow disease" might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of

?

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to

dementia

if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer's she should

take estrogen for years after menopause

in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease

Alzheimer's disease

one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer's patients is

the caregivers can't keep them home

the term "double jeopardy" describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are

part of a minority group and are old

triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to

a woman who is elderly and part of a minority

sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include

language

a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of

assisted living

the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about

5%

if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging

health maintenance

Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people

move

those of us who do not develop Alzheimer's will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer's research because

it will still keep the mind sharp

it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them

50...20

the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder

substance abuse

if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be

Alzheimer's/vascular disease

if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer's you would have to say

even best treatments have limited success

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