John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
direct telephone link created by Kennedy and Kruschev to allow leaders to communicate instantly in times of crisis
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Medicare and Medicaid
Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964),
a U.S. civil-rights organization formed by students and active esp. during the 1960s, whose aim was to achieve political and economic equality for blacks through local and regional action groups., Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
African American and white college students (usually from northern states) rode buses through southern states to challenge segregation
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places., 1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Fannie Lou Hamer
(1917-1977) bacame a SNCC field worker in 1963; helped found the MFDP; left SNCC in 1966 when the organization embraced Black Power but remained active in the civil right movement in 1971; helped found the National Women's Political Caucus
De Facto Segregation
segregation occurring because of economic or social conditions or because of personal choice; unnecessary to force integration
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.