mechanism of gradual increase in resistance by bacteria - allows resistance to only one drug
process by which extrachromosomal DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another; can take place b/t pathogen and normal body flora; frequently results in multiple drug resistance
Phase of TB treatment where all actively dividing bacteria are eliminated and patient is rendered noninfectious (last about 2 months)
Phase in TB treatment where all bacteria are eliminated (lasts about 4 months)
Directly observed therapy
DOT - administration of each dose of TB medication is done in the presence of an observer
the ability of a drug to injure a target cell or target organism without injuring other cells or organisms that are in intimate contact with the target
wall, enzyme, protein
Selective toxicity is accomplished through the disruption of the bacterial cell ______, inhibition of an ________ unique to the bacteria; and disruption of bacterial ___________ synthesis
infection aquired in a medical setting
new infection that appears during the course of tx for a primary infection; usually more difficult to treat
Which antibiotics are nearly ideal in their activity against a variety of bacteria and low direct toxicity
Penicillin is only active against bacteria that are undergoing __________ and _________.
Patients should remain in the doctor's office at least ________ minutes after taking penicillin.
Which antibiotic can stain teeth if given to children under 8 and pregnant women?
What organ do most TB drugs affect?
Amoxicillin, cavulanic acid
What two drugs are contained in Augmentin?
More than 80% of uncomplicated, community acquired UTI's are caused by ________
recolonization of the same organism
colonization of a new organism
Urinary tract antiseptics
medications used only for UTIs - work by becoming concentrated in urine and acting against common UTI pathogens
anti-fungal medication used to treat systemic mycoses which are progressive and potentially fatal
Which organ is usually affected in pts taking Amphotericin-B?
Which route is preferred for Amphotericin?
anti-viral medication which is used to treat Herpes infections?
Medication for active and latent tuberculosis
Peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity are potential complications of which drug?
medication which is used for URI's, UTI's, GI tract and infections of the bones, joints, skin and soft tissues
Which antibiotic is largely unused in pediatrics due to risk of tendon rupture?
__________ compounds should not be taken with ciprofloxacin
antibiotic which is lethal only to anaerobic organisms
Which antibiotic is used to fight C. difficile and prophylactically before abdominal surgery?
Which antibiotic should be infused over a 1 hr time span when administered through IV?
Aminoglycoside which can cause irreversible ototoxicity
Which antibiotics should never be mixed with a penicillin in an IV solution?
antibiotics which are used mainly to treat UTI's - especially those caused by E.coli
adverse effect of sulfonamides causing deposition of bilirubin in the brains of newborns
which two antibiotics should not be given to pregnant women or infants under 2 mo?
Which drug is a combination of TMP and SMZ?
The combination of two drugs in Septra lowers the ___________ of bacteria
Which antibiotic is only used for pseudomembranous colitis, MERSA, and serious infections in pts allergic to penicillin?
Which drug is responsible for reversible ototoxicity, red man syndrome, and thrombophlebitis?
PO vancomycin is only used for __________ infections
vancomycin is only effective against gram _____________ bacteria
Which drug is used to treat acne, H. pylori, ricketssial diseases, etc
Tetracycline should be administered 2 hr before or after ingesting products with __ or _____
drug which is a safe alternative for patients who are allergic to penicillin
which drug can cause liver injury and QT prolongation?
earliest and least toxic antibiotic
Most common cause of drug allergies
broad spectrum penicillin
1st generation cephalosporin
3rd generation cephalosporin
Which generation is preferred of the the cephalosporins?
Which abx group can cause an allergic reaction similar to penicillin?
Which abx's should not be taken with alcohol or drugs that promote bleeding?