help regulate chemical reactions in the body
which statement about vitamins is true
occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm
which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins
water soluble are less likely to be toxic
water soluble and fat soluble vitamins differ in the following way
most scientists believe we have discovered all vitamins relevant to humans
which of the following is true aboue our current knowledge about vitamins
a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisen Bran
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
Megadoses are defined as greater than___times the RDA.
the FDA does not regulate all vitamin and mineral supplements closely
which of the following is true about the regulation of the production and sale of vitamin and mineral supplements?
after absorption , they are transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream
which of the following is true about the absorption , transport and storage of fat soluble vitamins?
vitamins A and D
Which nutrients are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?
increases the risk of developing pellegra or beriberi
all the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT
carotenoids can be converted retinoids
which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
Most vitamin A is stored in the
which fat soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells b/c it promotes mucus production
which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A
which of the following is a good source of provitamn A?
this vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida
dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of
an average serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?
the nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
all the following are characterictics of vitamin D EXCEPT
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is
calcium deposits in the kidneys and other organs
the major effect of taking high doses of vitamin D is
Vitamin E functions as an
Decreasing LDL oxidation
Current scientific evidence indicates that vitamin E might play a role in preventing atherosclerosis by
a rich source of vitamin E is
the nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is
in general, excess amounts of water soluble vitamins are excreted via the
are stored in the liver
all the following are true of B vitamins EXCEPT
the vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is
Thiamin is distributed in small amounts in many foods. A nutrient dense source of thiamin is
milk and dairy products
the foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are
some niacin is formed in the body from
the vitamin incorporated in coenzyme A is
is very unlikely because of its widespread availability
a pantothenic acid deficiency
intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs
what vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism
the best vitamin B6 food sources include
a rich folate food source would be
green leafy vegetables
generally, good folate sources are
it is only found in animal products
Acquiring sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet may be a problem to vegans because
formation and maintenance of collgen requires
drying of the cornea due to vitamn A deficiency is called
the childhood disease rickets is due to a _____ deficiency
What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?
Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease
Pellagra is characterized by all the following EXCEPT
Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of
Vitamin B12 and folate
Vitamins involved in red blood cell formation are
water constitutes _____% of the body weight
the amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
phosphate and potassium
intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
sodium and chloride
the two most significant extracellular ions are
water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
the body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter per kcalorie.
Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?
thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids
which of the following is NOT true about the regulation of fluid in the body ?
trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less
minerals are classified in the following way
minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants
Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?
2,000 to 4,000
the typical American diet contains appoximately____mgs of sodium.
increase urinary excretion of sodium
Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
it maintains the ability to see at night
Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT
loss of appetite, heart arrhythmias, muscle cramps
the symptoms of potassium deficiency include
fruits and vegetables
Potassium is found in the largest quantities in
bones and teeth
in the body 99% of calcium is found in
which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?
milk and dairy products
the most nutrient dense calcium food source is
according to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
it is important for blood glucose regulation
phosphorus functions in all the following ways EXCEPT
the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
it is important for nerve and heart function
what is magnesium's primary function?
Magnesium is provided in the diet primarily by
we get most of the sulfur in our diet from
in some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some ____ to the diet.
absorption in the small intestine
The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
the best food source of iron is
The best iron source is
a reduced sense of taste and smell is associated with a deficiency of
The best zinc source is
it acts as an antioxident
which of the following is true about selenium?
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
thyroid hormone synthesis
Copper's functions consist of all the following EXCEPT
Which of the following is a good copper source?
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
impaired glucose tolerance
A suboptimal intake of chromium in individuals in the US has been linked to
which of the following is a good chromium source.
a components of many different enzymes
Manganese functions as
eat lots of prepackaged and canned foods
As far as diet is concerned, a person wanting to reduce the risk of developing hypertension would want to do all the following EXCEPT
in women, bone loss begins around the age
the energy expended when resting, but awake, and the eating has not recently taken place
Basal metabolism is
it represents about 60% to 70% of total kcalories used by the body during a day
which of the following is true about basal metabolism?
a low kcalorie
which of the following is NOT associated with an increase in basal metabolism?
energy content of food
all of the following contribute to total energy expenditure EXCEPT
includes daily activities as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting
refers to the extra energy used during digestion, absorption and metabolism
the thremic effect of food
5% to 10%
The kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ____ of energy consumed.
body mass index
body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yield
body mass index
which of the following is NOT a way to estimate body fat?
about 5% for adults
The success of weight reduction programs has been reported to be
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