Body Systems

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epithelial tissue

sheets of cells that cover the body's suface and form the lining of the internal organs

connective tissue

hold together and support other tissues and cushion, insulate, and connect organs

nervous system

the system that forms the communication system that helps the body respond to the enviroment

neuron

a nerve cell that transmits signals

epidermis

the outermost layer of skin made of mostly dead epitheliat cells that flake off

melanin

a pigmented protein that fives the skin color

dermis

the layer of skin that lies beneath and supports the epidermis

skeletal muscle

a voluntary muscle connected to bone

smooth muscle

an involuntary muscle found on most organs

cardiac muscle

an involuntary muscle that helps your heart pump blood

homeostasis

the internal stability maintained by the body

joint

an area where one bone meets another

ligament

a strong fibrous tissue in a joint, attatching bone to bone

tendon

dense tissue attatching bone to muscle

hormone

signal molecules released by glands to help regulate the body systems

interstitial fluid

aqueous solution filling space between cells in a tissue

alimentary canal

the tube in which digestion occurs starting at the mouth and ending at the anus

bolus

a chewed clump of food that travels the alimentary canal

peristalsis

a series of muscle contractions that push through the esophogus

chyme

acidic mixture of food and stomach fluids that travel from the stomach to the small intestine

villi

small fingerlike projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients

arteries

blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart

capillaries

microscopic blood vessels connecting arteries and veins allowing exchange between blood and interstitial fluid

veins

blood vessels carrying blood to the heart

lymph

fluid from blood lost to interstitial fluid that is collected in the lymphatic vessels and reused in blood

aorta

the artery that supplies oxygen rich blood to the body; on left side of the heart

pulmonary circuit

carry blood from the heart to the lungs to collect oxygen and back to the heart to be dispersed through the body

systemic circuit

carry oxygen rich blood from the heart, to the body and back to the heart

plasma

solution in blood containing water, salts, and proteins

hemoglobin

a protein in red blood cells that stores oxygen

platelet

small fragments of blood cells that stick to a damaged blood cells and release clotting factors to form fibrin and trap red blood cells from leaving vessels

pharynx

the throat; passage ways for air and food cross

epiglottis

covers air passage when swallowing to prevent water and food from entering lungs

trachea

the air passageway to the lungs

diaphragm

sheet of muscle forming the bottom wall of the chest cavity allowing breathing

pathogens

disease causing organisms or viruses

germ theory of disease

a theory stating that infectious disease is caused by pathogens that spread among organisms

histamine

chemical alarm released by mast cells which causes blood vessels to increase blood flow and the number of white blood cells there

antigen

a molecule on the surface of cancer cells, pollen, fungi, bacteria, and viruses that provokes an immune response

antibodies

proteins found on the surface of white blood cells that attck certain antigens

vaccine

a nonharmful does of a pathogen to stimulate immune response and formation of memory cells to protect from a real exposure to the pathogen

active immunity

when the body produces antibodies against infection

passive immunity

when the body recieves antibodies for a disease from another source

allergies

an abnormal oversensitivity to an otherwise nonharmful antigen known as an allergen

urea

compound of ammonia and carbon dioxide excreted from the body by the kidneys

excretion

the removal of nitrogen-containing wastes from the body

endocrine glands

glands that secret hormones

nephrons

microscopic filtering tubules in the kidney consisting of one tubule and its blood vessels

nervous

the system that coordinates the body's activities by detecting stimulii and directing the body's responses

skeletal

the system that provides body support, protects certain organs such as the brain and lungs, and works with the muscular system in body movements

muscular

the system that enables body movement and facial expressions essentail to human communication

integumentary

the system that covers the body and protects it from injury, infection, excessive heat/cold, and drying out

circulatory

the system that delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells and transports waste products to excretory organs

respiratory

the system that exhchanges gases with the environment

digestive

the system that ingests food, breaks it down into smaller chamical units for use in the body and eliminates undigested material

excretory

the system that removes waste products from the body and regulates the chemical makeup of the blood

endocrine

the system that secretes hormones that affect the functons of target cells and thereby regulates the activites of the other organ systems

reproductive

the system that reproduces gametes; the female system also provides the organs needed to support a developing embyro

lymphatic/immune

the system that defends the body against infections and cancer cells; supports the function of the circulatory sustem by returning fluid to blood vessels near heart

keratin

protein that makes up hair and nails

central nervous system

the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal chord

peripheral nervous system

the part of the nervous system that includes nerves

sensory receptors

the part of the nervous system that includes the nose, mouth, eyes, ears, and skin

nose/mouth> pharynx> trachea> lungs

the order of the respiratory system

rectum and anus

organs of elimination

ingestion

taking food in

digestion

machanically and chemically breaking down food

absorbtion

cells take up nutrients

elimination

removal of undigested material

pharynx

the part of digestion where the bolus goes before the throat

epiglottis

prevents food from entering the trachea

esophagus

the part of digestion that moves the bolus to the stomach through peristalsis

gastric juice

mixture of mucus, hydrochloric acid and enzymes that breaks down food

small intestine

the part of digestion where digestion is completed and absortion begins

liver

makes bile to separate fat

gallbladder

stores bile and releases it into the small intestine to mix with chyme

pancreas

releases juices into the small intestine that contain enzymes for breaking down carbs, proteins, and lipids

large intestine

reabsorbs water from undigested matieral

pineal

the gland that controls biorhythms in some animals and control the onset of puberty in humans

thyroid

the gland that stimulates metabolic rate and is essential to normal growth and development

pituitary

the gland that stimulates growth and stimulates secretion of hormones from other glands

ovary

the gland that stimulates development of female secondary sex characteristics, stimulates growth of sex organs at puberty, and prompts monthly preparation of uterus for pregnancy

hypothalamus

the gland that the major area where the nervous and endocrine systems interact

pancreas

the gland that controls blood glucose levels and determines the fate of glycogen

adrenal

the gland that initiates stress responses, increases heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate, dilates blood vessels, mobilizes fat and raises blood sugar levels

thymus

the gland that promotes production and maturation of white blood cells

testis

the gland that stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics, stimulates growth spurt at puberty, and stimulates spermatogenesis

parathyroid

the gland that increases blood calcium level, stimulates calcium reabsortion and activates vitamin D

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