← DIAL FINAL EXAM Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Economics What is the science of how people make choices regarding the allocation of scarce resources? Pharmacoepidemiology What is the study of the use and effects of drugs in large numbers of people? Pharmacoeconomics What is the study of deciding which drugs to provide, how and for whom? Quality/Cost What is value equal to? Discounting Value changes over time due to what? Cost-minimization analysis Which type of pharmacoeconomic analysis looks at which drug is strictly cheaper than than others? Cost-benefit analysis Which type of pharmacoeconomic analysis looks at the return on investment? Cost-benefit analysis Which type of pharmacoeconomic analysis examines cost and benefit in terms of currency? Cost-effectiveness analysis Which type of pharmacoeconomic analysis looks at a result in dollars per change in outcome? False True or false: Cost-effectiveness analyses take into consideration quality of life. True True or false: Cost-effectiveness analyses do not consider cost-effectiveness equivalent to cost-saving. Cost-utility analysis Which type of pharmacoeconomic analysis takes into consideration quality of life? False True or false: Cost-effectiveness analyses are multidimensional. True True or false: Utility (quality adjusted life years x life years gained) can be a negative value. False True or false: Cost-utility analyses are types of cost-benefit analyses. Decision trees What are used in order to visualize cost-effectiveness analyses? Direct cost Which type of cost occurs when money physically exchanges hands between two parties? Indirect cost Which type of cost occurs when no money was exchanged between parties, however, one party did pay? Intangible cost Which type of cost occurs when pain or suffering is involved? 4 How many possible outcomes exist for a decision tree examining the cost-effectiveness of a drug? Sensitivity analysis What type of sub-analysis is used during a cost-effectiveness analysis to test it against changes in uncertain estimates? Chi-squared test Which statistical test is used for dependent dichotomous nominal data and independent nominal data? ANOVA F test Which statistical test is used for dependent interval/ratio data and independent nominal data with more than 2 groups? Spearman rho Which statistical test is used for dependent ordinal data and independent ordinal data? Mann-Whitney U Which statistical test is used for dependent ordinal data and independent nominal data? Pearson's R Which statistical test is used for dependent interval/ratio data and independent interval/ratio data? Paired t-test Which statistical test is used for dependent interval/ratio data and independent nominal data with 1 group? Continuous What type of data do multiple regression analyses deal with? Correlation What is the type and strength of a linear relationship? 0.00-0.25 What range of correlation coefficient is considered to be weak? 0.25-0.75 What range of correlation coefficient is considered to be intermediate? 0.75-1.00 What range of correlation coefficient is considered to be strong? Regression What analysis describes how to draw a line that best fits a scatterplot with the smallest sum of squares? Residuals Regression minimizes what? False True or false: Multiple regression analyses can have more than 1 dependent variable but only 1 independent variable. Normal distribution What assumption must be made for the independent values in multiple regression analyses? False True or false: Dependent data must be normally distributed in multiple regression analyses. Linear What type of relationship must be assumed between independent and dependent variables in multiple regression analyses? True True or false: Multiple regression analyses should not have any independent or dependent outliers. R-squared What is the symbol for the coefficient of multiple determination? Explained variation/total variation What is R-squared equal to in multiple regression analyses? True True or false: R-squared will never decrease by adding a new X variable to a multiple regression analysis. Adjusted R-sqaured What must be determined when adding a new X variable to a multiple regression analysis to determine if that data effects the Y values? Residual analysis What analysis determines the difference between actual y values and predicted y values in multiple regression analyses? Heteroscedasticity If the residual plot has a slope, either positive or negative, what term implies the error related to the X variables? F-test What test is performed in multiple regression analyses to determine if the model is significant? No linear relationship exists What is the null hypothesis that we want to reject with F-tests in multiple regression analyses? False True or false: We want to minimize the amount of confounders we add to multiple regression analyses. Dichotomous What type of dependent data is examined in logistic regression? Logistic regression What statistical analysis calculates an odds ratio for data adjusted for other variables? Logit of P(y|x) What is ln(P(y|x)/(1-P(y|x)) called in logistic regression? Beta What is equal to ln(odds ratio)? Slope of the line What is beta equal to in logistic regression? Odds Ratio What is e^(beta) equal to in logistic regression? Survival analysis What statistical analysis analyzes survival or time-to-event data? Censored data What type of data in a survival analysis is labeled as such if an event did not occur in a patient (ie. lost, withdrew, study ended prior to event)? S(t)=P(T>t) What equation in a survival analysis shows the probability that an individual's survival time exceeds a specific predetermined value? Mean survival time What is the area under a survival analysis curve equal to? Median survival time What is S(t)=0.5 equal to in a survival analysis? Kaplan-Meier Method What method used in survival analyses depicts a stair-step survival curve and lays out failure events from smallest to largest? False True or false: There is no upper limit for groups that can be examined with the Kaplan-Meier Method in survival analyses. True True or false: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis curves do not account for confounding nor multivariate data. Log-Rank Test What test is used to compare survival analysis curves? False True or false: If a log-rank test evaluates two kaplan-meier curves with a p=0.03, this means that there in no difference between the survival curves. Peto test What survival analysis test weighs out survival time in an earlier part of the curve more heavily than other parts of the curve? Cox proportional hazards model What model is used to predict hazard in multivariate survival data? Hazard What is the probability that if you survive to t, you will succumb to that event immediately after t? True True or false: H(t) is a rate, not a probability. Tertiary literature What type of literature are systematic reviews/meta-analyses usually considered to be? Systematic Review What is research that provides a summary of trials on a specific clinical question, using an explicit protocol? Meta-analysis What is data from individual studies that is pooled quantitatively and reanalyzed using established statistical methods? False True or false: Meta-analyses are always separate from systematic reviews. PICO What acronym is used for step 1 in systematic review conduction? Outline of eligible studies Besides PICO and a specific question, what is required in step 1 of a systematic review? Literature search What is step 2 of a systematic review? False True or false: Hand searching for articles in systematic reviews is frowned upon as the articles were never published and are not statistically and clinically significant. True True or false: Abstracts from meetings can be used in systematic reviews. False True or false: In step 3 of a systematic review, the person conducting the study must assess the trials for inclusion and determine a k statistic. K statistic What is the level of agreement equal to in systematic reviews? True True or false: Poorly designed trials can only be excluded from a systematic review if they fail to meet prespecified criteria. Step 4 What step in a systematic review does a meta-analysis of the data? Forest plot The results of a meta-analysis are depicted in what type of plot? Cochran's Q statistic What tells us the significance of a systematic review/meta-analysis? I-squared statistic What statistic tells us the homogeneity of studies used in a systematic review/meta-analysis?