The earliest step in information processing is
What types of tasks will result in automatic processing in older adults?
When tasks are quite easy they can become automatic
One possible reason older adults have more difficulty with selective attention is
a decrease in processing resources
Age differences on divided attention tasks can
be reduced by increasing older adults' practice with the tasks.
Salthouse suggests that differences in working memory might be the result of
slower processing speed
Semantic memory is defined as involving which type of ability?
recalling the definition of a word or a historical fact
An older adult with Alzheimer's disease can't remember what he ate for lunch 10 minutes ago, but can remember the name of his childhood dog. This illustrates what type of common memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease patients?
Remembering the name of your 1st grade teacher 15 years later suggesets that the information is stored in
The best conclusion about age differences in retrieval is that
older adults are less efficient when generation retrieval cues than younger adults
Older adults are more susceptible to scams and con artists because they are more susceptible to
Research has shown that when older adults are asked to predict how well they will perform on a memory task, they are more accurate when
they have direct experience with the task
Which of the following is not a primary mental ability?
Longitudinal sequential research on primary mental abilities reveals
little practical decline until age 60
Which of the following is not a moderator of intellectural change?
The fact that younger generations generally do better on primary mental abilities than older generations is an example of
a cohort effect
Schaie (1995) reported that individuals with which personality characteristic at midlife tend to experience fewer declines in intellectual competence?
With respect to health and intellectual performance
the connection between cardiovascular disease and intelligence is well established
Project ADEPT showed that
training and booster sessions resulted in improved performance
According to Piaget's theory, changing one's thoughts to make a better approximation of the world is called
Research on developmental trends in formal operations shows that
some adults never attain this level
Postformal thought is characterized by all of the following except
there is only one correct answer
Reasoning about highly emotionally-charged dilemmas
is easier for middle-aged adults
Which of the following is NOT true of older adults' decision making?
Older adults' quality of decisions is not as good as younger adults
Research on wisdom shows that it is most associated with
Everyone describes Sharon as a nice person who is always helpful. This description best represents the personality concept of
Research on Costa and McCrae's model of personality traits shows
strong support for long-term stability
In addition to methodological concerns, Costa and McCrae's model has been criticized because dispositional traits rarely provide enough information to make predictions about how a person will act in a given situation, along with the fact that they
all of these
According to Jung, which of the following always increases with age?
The most basic aspect of a health personality in Erikson's theory is
Deirdre is very concerned about nurturing her colleagues in order for them to assume the responsibility some day. Deirdre is most likely to be at Erikson's stage of
generativity vs stagnation
Changes in the ways in which thoughts, values, morals, and goals are organized are related to one's
The best conclusion to draw from research concerning the midlife crisis is that
there is little data to support its existence
Whitbourne's findings suggest that the two most important sources of identity come from
family and work
Aspects of our personality pertaining to what we could become, what we would like to become, and what we are afraid of becoming are called
Older adults report using _____ most frequently as a coping mechanism in daily life.
Cross-sectional research on age differences in gender-role identity show
a move toward greater similarity between older men and women.
Which of the following would not be a good thing to implement when assessing an older adult?
fewer and longer testing sessions
Which are useful quick screening measures of mental competence?
Fewer and longer testing sessions
Which are the most widely used assessment methods?
Compared to younger adults, the rate of clinical depression in older adults is
A major problem in assessing older adults is
fewer tests were designed for older adults
WHich of the following has NOT be identified as a possible biological cause of depression?
Which therapy is especially effective with older adults?
All of these
Among people who are ill, the percentage with delirium can reach
Behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease tend to be worse
in the evening
The most promising work relating to the genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease has focused on
Which of the following statements is true concerning Alzheimer's disease?
Drug therapies are available to improve many of the behavioral problems.
Which of the following statements is false?
Sons are more likely to be caregivers than daughters
Dixie believes that people are spying on her and that she talks to the president when she is at the laundromat. Dixie is exhibiting halmarks of which disorder?
Alcohol dependency is most frequent during