What is Jermain's hypothesis?
People are more likely to be aggressive if they have been treated unfairly
Jermaine's study is
Why did Jermaine assign participants to groups randomly?
to be sure that the groups are equal in every way to start with
in Jermaine's study, what is the independent variable?
Whether participants overheard something unfair or not
in jermaine's study, what is the dependent variable?
the rating of loudness of the noise given to the partner.
if a measure is equally valid in persons of different ages, genders and cultures, it can be described as having high
to operationalize a variable is to
figure out a way of measuring it
answers to project tests such, such as the thematic appereception test and rorschach ink blots, are considered self-report data
according to the text, the two larger purposes for measuring traits are to
predict and understand behavior
Ellen works into the night studying for chemistry and biology examinations to reach her goal of entering medical school. she studies so hard that she often appears bored and uninterested in class. Which of the following trait formulations best explains Ellen's personality characteristics?
traits as internal causes
to say that someone has the trait of happiness, you need to know that the person
is frequently happy
Sally is a strong proponent of the lexical hypothesis. Where would she likely begin her search for the essential traits of personality
Personality psychologists compare the complexities and richness of human personality to the way a color wheel, consisting of a mere three colors, can create the entire spectrum of coloros visible to the human eye. This analogy illustrates how
a few basic and primary traits could be responsible for the idiosyncrasies of every personality
Walter Mischel and his 1968 book personality and assessment are noteworthy because Mischel
is credited with starting the person-situation debate by claiming that personality is not as important as situational factors in behavioral predictiction
if the trait of stinginess is viewed as a purely descriptive summary of behavior, it can be represented best by
Beth living with several roommates
What are the big three traits according to hans eysenck?
neuroticism/ extraversion/ psychoticism
a person who tends to be happy and experience positive affect in life would have this combination of five factor traits
high extroversion and low neuroticism
the identity of the fifth factor (openness to experience) is the most agreed-upon factor in the five factors model
the five factor model has been criticized because
it may not include some important traits
_________ usually is/ are defined as the individual differences that show up early in life and are likely to be heritable and involved in behaviors linked with emotionality.
trait neuroticism and negative affect scores tend to ____________ from freshamn to senior years in college.
most major personality traits
have been found to be moderately heritable
a trait is likely to be heritable if _______ are more similar in that trait than _______
monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
which of the following would not be a pronounced symptom in a patient who suffers from frontal lobe damage?
reports about the remarkable behavioral and personality effects of accidental brain injury in the frontal lobe led
neurosurgeons to perform lobotomies to control maladaptive behavior.
introverts are more chronically aroused than extraverst
According to damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, damage to the right frontal lobes impair's one's _______, which then impairs one's ______.
emotional reactions to events and thoughts; ability to make decisions about what is and is not important
a study of the associations between testosterone levels and spectator sports demonstrates that _______.
testosterone can be influenced by outcome of a sporting event.
freudian slips are
a result of the motivated unconscious.
according to psychoanalytic theory, no actions is ever random
Morality develops during the anal stage
children who cope best with traumatic events employ what kind of defense mechanisms?
defense mechanisms that match their chronological age
a politician who supported severe efforts to restrict internet access in his community to prevent the spread of child pornography was arrested and convicted for possession of child pornography. Which defense mechanism best accounts for this paradoxical behavior?
Freud and Erikson mostly disagreed that
personality development continues throughout life
the superego's main function is to mediate between the id's impulses and the ego's sense of morality.
each of erikson's stages of psychosocial development is a product of the
negotiations between person and society
justin is trying to find his place in the world. he tries a variety of sports, part-time jobs, and is starting to explore what his college major might be next year. He is in Erikson's _______ stage of development.
identity versus role confusions
Sheri is taking off a year after college to travel throughout Europe. Erikson would believe she is experiencing _______ in the development of her identity.
according to terror management theory
self-esteem allows people to face threats with minimal anxiety.
people with low (as opposed to high) self-complexity
are devastated by negative life vents.
narcissists react to failure by
derogating other people
which of the following components of Type A behavior pattern is most lethal?
Which of the following is NOT true about what Harlow learned about baby monkeys in his experiment? Baby Monkeys
prefer fake mothers who provided food
While little Mandy is playing her mother leaves the room for a few minutes. When her mother returns , Mandy hardly noticed that she had been gone. Ainsworth and her colleagues would probably label Mandy as being _______ attached.
most people who study attachment and relationship style would agree that
a positive relationship in adulthood can compensate for a negative childhood.
Your good friend Frederick's grilfriend, Elizabeth, is very high maintenance and demands far more from Frederick then he possibly give. As a good student of personality you, tell Frederick that Elizabeth most likely has a(n) _____ relationship style.
Nisbett's "culture of honor" is an example of
Nisbett has attributed greater aggression among Southerners to
the greater need to protect resources that could easily be stolen
Peronality disorders can be thought of as
maladaptiv variations or combinations of normal personality traits