Honors Biology - Chapter 20

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annual

lives and reproduces within 1 year

biennial

lives 2 years and reproduces in 2nd year

perennial

lives and reproduces many years

seed coat

coating that protects embryo

cotyledon

provides nutrients to embryo

buds

undeveloped shoots

leaf

main site of photosynthesis

petiole

connects leaf to stem

meristem

cells that generate new cells that will later differentiate

primary growth

vertical growth

secondary growth

growth in width

apical meristem

meristem found in tips of roots and shoots

vascular cambium

make new xylem and phloem

cork cambium

makes new cork, which becomes part of bark

pollination and double fertilization

Pollen is carried from anther to stigma of a flower of same species. A pollen tube grows toward the ovary through the style. When the pollen reaches to ovary it releases two sperm: one fertilizes the egg to from zygote, the other fertilizes the large central cell to form the endosperm.

label flower

http://urbanext.illinois.edu/gpe/images/flower12.gif

petal

attracts pollinators

sepal

protects bud

receptacle

holds flower

pistil

female part of flower

stigma

capture pollen

style

transports sperm to egg

ovary

protects ovules and becomes fruit

stamen

male part of flower

anther

produces pollen

filament

holds up anther

vegetative reproduction

asexual reproduction in plants
-offspring are clones
-drop stems or other shoots that establish new roots and become clones
-send out shoots from the base of their trunks that go underground and create a new clone

seed dispersal

-wind: need many seeds, can be distributed long distances
-animal: food for animal or can travel on animal
-water: is carried by water, ex. coconut

germination

embryo in seed begins to grow again and develop into a plant
environmental conditions cue germination
-usually warm, moist soil
-some only germinate after going through a cold place
-some require the heat of a fire

function of roots

anchor a plant and absorb minerals and water
-fibrous root
-tap root

function of shoots

transport water & nutrients from the roots to the leaves and food from the leaves to the roots

3 different tissue types

1. Dermal tissue: outer covering
2. Vascular tissue: transports substances
3. Ground tissue: fills spaces between dermal and vascular tissue

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