Ely's test, Ober's test, Piriformis test, Thomas test, Tripod sign, 90-90 straight leg raise test
Barlow's test, Ortolani's test
The patient is positioned in prone while the therapist passively flexes the patient's knee. A positive test is indicated by spontaneous hip flexion occuring simultaneously with knee flexion and may be indicative of a rectus femoris contracture.
The patient is positioned in sidelying with the lower leg flexed at the hip and the knee. The therapist moves the test leg into hip extension and abduction and then attempts to slowly lower the test leg. A positive test is indicated by an inability of the test leg to adduct and touch the table and may be indicative of a tensor fasciae latae contracture.
The patient is positioned in sidelying with the test leg positioned toward the ceiling and the hip flexed to 60 degrees. The therapist places one hand on the patient's pelvis and the other hand on the patient's knee. While stabilizing the pelvis, the therapist applies a downward force on the knee. A positive test is indicated by pain or tightness, and may be indicative of piriformis tightness or compression on the sciatic nerve caused by the piriformis.
The patient is positioned in supine with the legs fully extended. The patient is asked to bring one of their knees to the chest in order to flatten the lumbar spine. The therapist observes the position of the contralateral hip while the patient holds the flexed hip. A positive test is indicated by the straight leg rising from the table and may be indicative of a hip flexon contracture.
The patient is positioned in sitting with the knees flexed to 90 degrees over the edge of the table. The therapist passively extends one knee. A positive test is indicated by tightness in the hamstrings or extension of the trunk in order to limit the effect of the tight hamstrings.
90-90 straight leg raise test
The patient is positioned in supine and is asked to stabilize the hips in 90 degrees of flexion with the knees relaxed. The therapist instructs the patient to alternately extend each knee as much as possible while maintaining the hips in 90 degrees of flexion. A positive test is indicated by the knee remaining in 20 degrees or more of flexion and is indicative of hamstring tightness.
The patient is positioned in supine with the hips flexed to 90 degrees and the knees flexed. The therapist tests each hip individually by stabilizing the femur and pelvis with one hand while the other hand moves the test leg into abduction while applying forward pressure to the greater trochanter. A positive test is indicated by a click or a clunk and may be indicative of a hip dislocation being reduced. The test is considered to be a variation of Ortolani's test.
The patient is positioned in supine with the hips flexed to 90 degrees and the knees flexed. The therapist grasps the legs so that the thumbs are placed along the patient's medial thighs and the fingers are placed on the lateral thighs toward the buttocks. The therapist abducts the infant's hips and gentle pressure is applied to the greater trochanters until resistance is felt at approximately 30 degrees. A positive test is indicated by a click or clunk and may be indicative of a dislocation being reduced.
The patient is positioned in prone with the test knee flexed to 90 degrees. The therapist palpates the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter and medially and laterally rotates the hip until the greater trochanter is parallel with the table. The degree of anterversion corresponds to the angle formed by the lower leg with the perpendicular axis of the table. Normal anteversion for an adult is 8 - 15 degrees.
Patrick's test (Faber test)
The patient is positioned in supine with the test leg flexed, abducted, and laterally rotated on the opposite leg. The therapist slowly lowers the test leg in abduction toward the table. A positive test is indicated by a failure of the test leg to abduct below the level of the opposite leg and may be indicative of iliopsoas, sacroiliac or hip joint abnormalities.
Quadrant scouring test
The patient is positioned in supine. The therapist passively flexes and adducts the hip with the knee in maximal flexion. The therapist applies a compressive force through the shaft of the femur while continuing to passively move the patient's hip. A positive test is indicated by grinding, catching or crepitation in the hip and may be indicative of pathologies such as arthritis, avascular necrosis or an osteochondral defect.
The patient is standing and is asked to stand on one leg for approximately ten seconds. A positive test is indicated by a drop of the pelvis on the unsupported side and may be indicative of weakness of the gluteus medius muscle on the supported side.
The patient is sidelying at edge of table while holding bottom leg in max hip and knee flexion (knee to chest). PT stands behind the patient passively extending the hip of uppermost limb. (+) pain in SI joint. Identifies a SI dysfunction.