sociology religion

57 terms by hilarysantos 

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2. According to Lipset, "the most God-believing and religion-adhering, fundamentalist, and religiously traditional country in Christendom" is:
a. Afghanistan
b. the United Kingdom
c. Canada
d. Italy
e. the United States

e

3. What is the social function of religion, according to Émile Durkheim?
a. It provides justification for those who are in power.
b. It aids in cohering or providing solidarity by ensuring that people meet regularly to affirm common beliefs and values.
c. It contributes to the process of social transformation.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

b

4. What is the connection between religion and violence?
a. Western religions, such as Christianity and Judaism, do not engage in violent activity; they focus only on compassion and understanding.
b. Violence is endemic to most religions, and this violence is couched in terms of the forces of good against the forces of evil.
c. Islam is the only religion that mandates a direct link between religious fervor and violence.
d. Violence in the form of military conquests is always directed at religious conflicts.
e. all of the above

b

6. According to Max Weber's theory, leaders who are charismatic:
a. have inspirational qualities capable of capturing the imagination and devotion of a mass of followers
b. are usually the main force behind a religious movement in its early phase
c. may be political or religious leaders
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

9. According to the religious economy approach:
a. there is only so much religion to go around, so it should be "spent" wisely
b. religions can be understood as organizations in competition with one another for followers
c. the economy has replaced religion as the major source of values and norms in modern societies
d. economic activities are increasingly guided by religious values
e. money is the root of all evil

b

19. According to your text, religious movements pass through several phases of development. The first phases, according to Max Weber, involve charismatic leaders. What are some other characteristics of this type of leader?
a. They are passive and caring.
b. They have the ability to capture people's imagination and the devotion of followers.
c. They have strong convictions and the ability to articulate these convictions in writing.
d. They are well educated with significant financial support.
e. They are interested in integrating a variety of religious tents and aggressively pursue followers.

b

25. According to sociologist Diana Paul, which of the world's religions is NOT "an overwhelmingly male-created institution"?
a. Buddhism
b. Hinduism
c. Judaism
d. Christianity
e. All of the above are male-created institutions.

e

27. Which of the following best describes the relationship between Islam and political nationalism?
a. The goal of all Muslims is to create an Arab-Islamist nation-state.
b. Sunni Muslims (like the former leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein) are more tolerant of different opinions than are other Muslim groups.
c. Most Muslims are Shiite Arabs who are strong backers of equal rights for women, unlike non-Arab Sunni Muslims.
d. Shiites dominate the politics of most Muslim countries.
e. Iran is governed by a council of Sunni Muslims who restrict the activities of women.

b

31. A religious organization that forms by breaking away from an established church, relies on people joining rather than being born into the group, and generally rejects or tries to change the surrounding society would be termed a:
a. religious movement
b. denomination
c. church
d. sect
e. cult

d

32. An example of a world-affirming movement would be:
a. the Protestant Church
b. the Unification Church
c. the Baptist Church
d. the Branch Davidian Cult
e. the Church of Scientology

e

40. Belief that many gods represent various natural forces is:
a. totemism
b. animism
c. shamanism
d. monotheism
e. polytheism

e

41. In Émile Durkheim's terms, objects that are venerated and treated as separate from the routine aspects of day-to-day existence are:
a. sacred
b. profane
c. shamans
d. magic
e. alienated

a

43. The phrase "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance is an example of:
a. political religion
b. civil religion
c. separation of church and state
d. secularization
e. fundamentalism

b

45. What characteristic is NOT associated with Evangelical organizations?
a. spiritual entrepreneurs
b. televangelism
c. enormous growth
d. Gospel of Prosperity
e. hard work and self-denial

e

50. American citizens, on September 11, 2001, attended church in tremendous numbers. This exemplifies which theorist's understanding of religion?
a. Marx
b. Martineau
c. Weber
d. Durkheim
e. Mead

d

51. Which of the following sociological theorists believed that religion would become less and less significant in modern times?
a. Karl Marx
b. Émile Durkheim
c. Max Weber
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

54. Since religions are a major source of norms and values, sociologists understand them to be:
a. among the most important institutions in society
b. a significant source of social solidarity
c. a frequent source of conflict
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

55. Who among the following would most likely assert that "Capitalism and industrialization expanded faster in those countries where Protestantism, rather than Catholicism, dominated the country"?
a. Karl Marx
b. Émile Durkheim
c. Max Weber
d. Siddartha Gautama
e. none of the above

c

56. A rise in worldly thinking coupled with a decline in the influence of religion is called:
a. globalization
b. religious pluralism
c. New Age religion
d. theism
e. secularization

e

57. What are the three key elements of the sociological definition of religion?
a. Religion is a form of culture.
Religion involves beliefs that take form in ritualized practices.
Religion provides a feeling that life is ultimately meaningful because it frames life in a way that other institutions do not.
b. Religion is a form of culture.
Religion involves beliefs that take form in ritualized practices.
Religion provides a feeling that life is ultimately useless.
c. Religion is a form of culture.
Religion involves beliefs that take form in ritualized practices.
Religion ultimately provides a feeling of peace and comfort.
d. Religion is a form of culture.
Religion involves beliefs that take form in private settings.
Religion provides a feeling that life is ultimately meaningful because it frames life in a way that other institutions do not.
e. Religion is a form of culture.
Religion involves beliefs that take form in private settings.
Religion ultimately provides a feeling of peace and comfort.

a

60. ________ other institutions, women have been ________ positions of power in most churches and denominations.
a. As is the case in; excluded from
b. As is the case in; incorporated in
c. Contrary to the situation in; excluded from
d. Contrary to the situation in; incorporated in
e. None of the above; women's situations vary greatly from one group to another.

a

62. According to your textbook, what is a potential disadvantage to full-service or megachurches?
a. They are limited in the number of stores they have available.
b. It is difficult to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the "mall."
c. People may flock to the church only to play basketball.
d. There is usually a lack of diversity of members.
e. They appeal only to low-income members who use them as a place to sleep.

d

64. ________ that survive over time become institutionalized as ________.
a. Churches; sects
b. Sects; denominations
c. Denominations; cults
d. Denominations; churches
e. Sects; cults

b

66. Which of the following best describes liberation theology?
a. Mel Gibson's production of The Passion of the Christ and its remarkable profitability
b. Oktoberfest and its combination of frivolity and religiosity
c. the religious overtones in a pre-game locker room prior to an important game
d. religious involvement in improving the economic and political lives of people
e. all of the above

d

73. The sociological definition of religion includes elements of:
a. culture
b. behavior
c. a sense of the purpose and meaning of life
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

76. Which of the following groups has seen a big decrease in attendance at religious services since the 1960s, largely because of the stance of the organization on birth control?
a. Catholics
b. Protestants
c. Judaism
d. the new cults
e. fundamentalists

a

78. According to Marx, religious beliefs can provide justifications for those people who are:
a. in a position of need
b. in a position of power
c. in need of moral, social, or economic support
d. responsible for a group of practitioners
e. in need of a reason to change their geographic location

b

81. Which type of new religious movement is most likely to require significant lifestyle changes of its members?
a. world-affirming movements
b. world-rejecting movements
c. world-accommodating movements
d. world-class movements
e. world-shattering movements

b

82. Since the terms sect and cult have negative connotations these days, sociologists now prefer to call such groups:
a. churches
b. denominations
c. new social movements
d. new religious movements
e. New Age religions

d

85. What is unique about the New Age religious movement?
a. its exclusive basis in medieval Christianity
b. its practice of human sacrifice
c. its rigid dogmatism
d. its narrow, inflexible organizational structure
e. its eclectic openness to diverse practices and beliefs from all over the globe

e

88. The religious economy model is adapted from:
a. an anthropological viewpoint
b. the business world
c. political science
d. statistical analysis
e. all of the above

b

89. Which is the most loosely organized and transient of all religious organizations?
a. denomination
b. sect
c. cult
d. church
e. fundamentalism

c

92. Sociologists explain the appeal of religion in terms of:
a. the supernatural intervention of spirits or gods
b. the psychological experience of the person who is attracted to it
c. problems of the social order that threaten a person's sense of well-being
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

c

93. Max Weber wrote an extensive study of religions worldwide. These writings differ from other theorists in that the focus is on:
a. religion and religious practitioners
b. religion and social transformations
c. religion and conformity
d. religion as a conservative force
e. religion as a socialist force

b

98. The spread of Islamic fundamentalism is best understood as:
a. a liberalization of gender and sexual norms
b. a disavowal of the Koran and a movement toward a more secular society
c. a terrorist, violent religious sect
d. a political movement that is reacting against Western beliefs
e. all of the above

d

____ 100. Which of the following would be included in the term new religious movements?
a. the Unification Church
b. International Society for Krishna Consciousness
c. New Age self-help seminars
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

2. Which of the following best describes the trend in the United States of religious affiliation?
a. Jewish affiliation has increased because of religious conversions.
b. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of Catholics attending religious services.
c. More men and women are joining evangelical churches.
d. There has been a consistent eroding of public displays of religion since the election of George W. Bush.
e. none of the above

c

4. According to Lipset, "the most God-believing and religion-adhering, fundamentalist, and religiously traditional country in Christendom" is:
a. Afghanistan
b. the United Kingdom
c. Canada
d. Italy
e. the United States

e

24. Who among the following would most likely assert that "Capitalism and industrialization expanded faster in those countries where Protestantism, rather than Catholicism, dominated the country"?
a. Karl Marx
b. Émile Durkheim
c. Max Weber
d. Siddartha Gautama
e. none of the above

c

30. There are many theories to explain Islamic revivalism. Iranian writer Jalal al Ahmad believes it is a reaction to:
a. secularization
b. "westoxification": the overwhelming presence of Western culture and beliefs
c. the liberalization of the Iranian state
d. the influx of Hindu immigrants
e. a fatwa from the Islamic legal authorities

b

33. Religion, according to Émile Durkheim, is based on a distinction between the ________ and the ________.
a. people; natural world
b. society; natural world
c. good; bad
d. sacred; profane
e. pure; nasty

d

35. According to Max Weber's theory, leaders who are charismatic:
a. have inspirational qualities capable of capturing the imagination and devotion of a mass of followers
b. are usually the main force behind a religious movement in its early phase
c. may be political or religious leaders
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

41. Max Weber saw ________ as the source of the capitalistic outlook found in the modern West.
a. the profit motive
b. money
c. Protestantism
d. Catholicism
e. Islam

c

49. Which of the following sociological theorists believed that religion would become less and less significant in modern times?
a. Karl Marx
b. Émile Durkheim
c. Max Weber
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

50. A rise in worldly thinking coupled with a decline in the influence of religion is called:
a. globalization
b. religious pluralism
c. New Age religion
d. theism
e. secularization

e

51. A religious organization that forms by breaking away from an established church, relies on people joining rather than being born into the group, and generally rejects or tries to change the surrounding society would be termed a:
a. religious movement
b. denomination
c. church
d. sect
e. cult

d

54. In the classification of religious organizations based on early theories of Weber, Troeltsch, and Niebuhr, ________ were considered to be most established and conventional, whereas ________ were placed at the opposite end of the continuum.
a. sects; churches
b. churches; sects
c. churches; cults
d. cults; churches
e. cults; sects

c

55. What is the social function of religion, according to Émile Durkheim?
a. It provides justification for those who are in power.
b. It aids in cohering or providing solidarity by ensuring that people meet regularly to affirm common beliefs and values.
c. It contributes to the process of social transformation.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

b

66. Since religions are a major source of norms and values, sociologists understand them to be:
a. among the most important institutions in society
b. a significant source of social solidarity
c. a frequent source of conflict
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

The spread of Islamic fundamentalism
is best understood as:
a. a liberalization of gender and sexual norms
b. a disavowal of the Koran and a movement toward a more secular society
c. a terrorist, violent religious sect
d. a political movement that is reacting against Western beliefs
e. all of the above

d

81. The original source of the world's two largest religions is:
a. Christianity
b. Islam
c. Judaism
d. Hinduism
e. Buddhism

c

82. Which of the following is a component of collective action, according to Charles Tilly?
a. organization
b. mobilization
c. common interests
d. opportunity
e. all of the above

e

83. The sociological definition of religion includes elements of:
a. culture
b. behavior
c. a sense of the purpose and meaning of life
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

84. What is the current relationship between religion and politics in the United States?
a. There is an increased movement to disestablish the two institutions.
b. Formal religion is absent from American politics because of the U.S. belief in the civil religion.
c. The U.S. constitution mandates a complete separation of religion and government, a policy strongly enforced by the Bush administration.
d. Democrats have courted the religious fundamentalists by focusing on moral issues of gun control and antiwar platforms.
e. The Republican party has adopted the key issues of conservative religious leaders.

e

87. Belief in a single all-knowing, all-powerful god is called:
a. totemism
b. animism
c. shamanism
d. monotheism
e. polytheism

d

89. Which of the following would be included in the term new religious movements?
a. the Unification Church
b. International Society for Krishna Consciousness
c. New Age self-help seminars
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

d

92. The religious economy model is adapted from:
a. an anthropological viewpoint
b. the business world
c. political science
d. statistical analysis
e. all of the above

b

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