HRM Vocabulary - Chapter 1-3

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Final Exam Chapters 1-3

Human Resource Management

The field of study and practice that focuses on people in organizations

Organizational Life Cycle

Stages through which an organization moves after its founding

Entrepreneurial Stage

•First stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on survival

Communal Stage

•Second stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on expansion and innovation

Formalization Stage

•Third stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on establishing clear practices and procedures for carrying out work

Elaboration Stage

•Final stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on reinvention and adaptation to change

Stakeholders

Individuals or groups who are affected by or who affect and organization

Employee Turnover

The process in which employees leave the organization and are replaced by other employees

Strategic Management

The human resource function concerned with strategic planning for producing and marketing goods and services

Workforce Planning and Employement

The human resource function concerned with designing jobs and placing people in those jobs

The human Resource Development

The human resource function concerned with helping employees learn knowledge and skills

Total Rewards

The human resource function concerned with managing employee pay and benefits

Employee and Labor Relations

The human resource function concerned with building and maintaining good relationships with employees and labor unions

Risk Management

The human resource function concerned with employees physical and mental well-being

Employee Advocate Role

A human resource role concerned with looking out for the interests of employees and ensuring that they are treated fairly

Strategic Partner Role

A human resource role concerned with providing inputs that help an organization put its competitive strategy into action

Human Capitol Developer Role

A human resource role concerned with facilitating learning and skill development

Competency

Knowledge, skill, ability, and other personal attributes needed to perform a work behavior

Business Knowledge Competencies

Knowledge and skills in areas of general business, such as financ, accounting, marketing, and operations planning

Human Resource Practice Competencies

Knowledge and skills applied to carry out actions such as recruiting, hiring, training, and compensating

Change Management Competencies

Knowledge and skills applied to help an organizatino grow and adapt to new conditions

Population Trends

Demographic trends related to the characteristcis of people in a certain population

Labor Force Trends

Trends concerning the number and types of people who are working or looking for work

Employment Opportunity Trends

Trends concerning the types of jobs that will be available in the future

Education and Training Trends

Trends concerning the knowledge and skills workers will need in the future

Globalization Trends

Trends concerning the process by which companies move from doing business in many countries

Strategy

Coordination choices and actions that provide direction for people and organizations

Competitive Business Strategy

Strategy that focuses on different ways to provide goods and services that meet customer needs

Human Resource Strategy

Strategy that focuses on different ways of managing employees of an organization

External Environment

Forces outside the organizations boundaries that influence the organizations external environment

Opportunities

Positive elements of an organizations external environment

Strengths

Positive elements that define areas in which an organization has high internal capability

Weakness

Negative factors that define areas in which an organization has low internal capability

Corporate-Level Strategy

A competitive strategy that concerns the different business and diversity of products and services that an organization produces

Business-Level Strategy

A competitive strategy that concerns how an organization, or part of an organization, will compete with other organizations that produce similar goods or services

Cost Leadership Strategy

A business-level strategy that seeks to produce goods and services that are in some manner superior to what is produced by competitors

Differentiation Strategy

A business-level strategy that seeks to produce goods and services that are in some manner superior to what is produced by competitors

Role

Behaviors that define how a person is expected to act in a given setting, such as the workplace

Universal Approach

A human resource perspective that seeks to identify methods of managing people that are effective for al organizations

Contingency Approach

A human resource perspective that seeks to align different ways of managing people with different competitive strategies for producing goods and services

Human Resource Bundles

Groups of human resource practices that work together to create a consistent work environment

Control Strategy

A human resource bundle that emphasizes managerial control and tries to streamline production processes

Commitment Strategy

A human resource bundle that builds strong attachment to the organization an emphasizes worker empowerment

Internal Labor Orientation

A human resource perspective that emphasizes hiring workers early in their careers and retaining those workers for long periods of time

External Labor Orientation

A human resource perspective that limits attachment to a specific organization and emphasizes hiring workers who already possess the skills they need to complere specific tasks

Loyal Soldier HR Strategy

A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on long-term employees with a focus on reducing costs

•An internal/cost approach

Bargain Laborer HR Strategy

A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on short-term employees with a focus on reducing costs

•An external/cost approach

Committed Expert HR Strategy

A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on long-term employees with a focus on producing unique goods and services

•An internal/differentiation approach

Free Agent HR Strategy

A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on short-term employees with a focus on producing unique goods and services

•An external/differentiation approach

Immutable Characteristics

Personal characteristics that cannot reasonable be changes such as race an sex

Title VII

The portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that focuses specifically on employment discrimination

Protected Classess

Groups of people, such as racial minorities and women, who are protected against discrimination

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

A federal agency with responsibility to oversee, investigate, and litigate claims of employment discrimination

Discrimination

In the context of employment, unfair treatment that occurs when people from particular groups are not given the same employment opportunities as people in other groups

Equal Employment Opportunity

Absence of discrimination in the workplace

•The condition in which people have an equal chance for desirable employment regardless of belonging to a certain race, gender, or other group

Disparate Treatment

The practice of treating job applicants and employees differently based on race, gender, or some other group characteristic

Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)

Characteristics of members of a specific group that is necessary to perform a certain job

Adverse Impact

Discrimination that results from employer practices that are not discriminatory on their face but have a discriminatory impact

Validity

The quality of being justifiable

•To be valid, a method of selecting employees must accurately predict who will perform the job well

Four-Fifths Rule

Evidence of adverse impact that occurs when the hiring rate of one group is less than 80% of the hiring rate of another group

Harassment

In the workplace, improper actions or words of coworkers that cause an employee to feel persistently annoyed or alarmed

Sexual Harassment

In the workplace, improper words or actions that are sexual in nature or that are directed toward workers of a specific sex or sexual orientation

Quid Pro Quo

A form of sexual harassment that makes continued employment and advancement contingent upon sexual favors

Hostile Environment

A form of sexual harassment that occurs when employees create an offensive environment in the workplace that interferes with an individuals ability to perform work duties

Race Norming

The process of evaluating an applicants score by comparing the score only with scores achieved by people of the same race

Punitive Damages

Payments ordered by courts that exceed actual damages and are designed to punish a defendant

Physical Disabilities

Body impairments that substantially limit an individuals ability to engage in normal life activities

Mental Disabilities

Impairments of the mind that substantially limit an individuals ability to engage in normal life activities

Reasonable Accommodations

Under the ADA, an alteration of the work environment that enables a qualified individual with a disability to perform essential tasks

Undue Hardship

Under the ADA, a sever economic or other hardship placed on an employer by the requirement to make accommodations for workers with disabilities

•An employer is not required to make accommodations that impose undue hardship

Comparable Worth

A measure that assumes that each job has an inherent value to the organization and that dissimilar jobs can be compared to determine whether the pay for these jobs reflects this value

Affirmative Action Plan

A plan aimed at increasing representation of employees from a protected class who have historically been victims of discrimination

Utilization Study

An assessment to determine how closely an organizations pool of employees reflects the racial and gender profile of the surrounding community

Emergency Action Plan Standard

The OSHA requirement that organizations develop a plan for dealing with emergencies such as fires or natural disasters

Hazard Communication Standard

The OSHA requirement that organizations identify and label chemicals that might harm workers

Medical and First Aid Standard

The OSHA requirement that an organization make medical and first aid resources available to workers who may become injured

Workers Compensation

State programs that provide workers and families with work-related accidents and injuries

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