microbiology chapter 12

51 terms by hilarysantos 

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1. Which is mismatched?
Fleming - penicillin
Domagk - sulfonamide
Ehrlich - tetracycline
Florey and Chain - penicillin
None of the choices are correct.

Ehrlich - tetracycline

2. Salvarsan was
discovered in the mid-1900's.
used to treat syphilis.
formulated from the red dye prontosil.
first discovered as a product of Penicillium notatum.
discovered by Robert Koch.

used to treat syphilis.

3. Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
antibiotics.
narrow-spectrum drugs.
semisynthetic drugs.
synthetic drugs.
broad-spectrum drugs

antibiotics.

4. Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
antibiotics.
narrow-spectrum drugs.
semisynthetic drugs.
synthetic drugs.
broad-spectrum drugs.

broad-spectrum drugs.

5. Antibiotics are derived from all the following except
Penicillium.
Bacillus.
Staphylococcus.
Streptomyces.
Cephalosporium

Staphylococcus.

6. Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include
readily delivered to the site of infection.
high toxicity against microbial cells.
do not cause serious side effects in humans.
remains active in body tissues and fluids.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

7. Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
nephrotoxicity.
superinfections.
allergic reactions.
drug toxicity.
All of the choices are correct.

superinfections.

8. Penicillins and cephalosporins
interfere with DNA synthesis.
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.
attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.
damage cell membranes.
block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.

block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.

9. Sulfonamides
interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan.
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.
attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis.
damage cell membranes.
block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules

are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.

10. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have
a beta-lactam ring.
resistance to the action of penicillinase.
a semisynthetic nature.
an expanded spectrum of activity.
All of the choices are correct.

a beta-lactam ring.

11. A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is
synercid.
penicillinase.
aztreonam.
clavulanic acid.
imipenem.

clavulanic acid.

12. All of the following pertain to cephalosporins except
they have a beta-lactam ring.
greater resistance to beta-lactamases.
newer generations have activity against gram negatives.
many administered by injection not orally.
they are synthetic drugs.

they are synthetic drugs.

13. This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis
penicillin G.
vancomycin.
aminoglycosides.
synercid.
isoniazid.

isoniazid.

14. Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus?
tetracycline
isoniazid
linezolid
aminoglycosides
cephalosporins

linezolid

15. All of the following pertain to fluoroquinolones except
broad spectrum.
include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
are nephrotoxic.
used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections.
they work by inhibiting bacterial DNA replication.

are nephrotoxic.

16. The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is
nystatin.
griseofulvin.
amphotericin B.
sulfa drugs.
metronidazole.

amphotericin B.

17. There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms
do not cause many human infections.
are not affected by antimicrobics.
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.
are parasites found inside human cells.
have fewer target sites compared to bacteria.

are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.

18. Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals?
block penetration
block transcription and translation
inhibit DNA synthesis
block maturation
bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane

bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane

19. An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that
blocks penetration.
blocks DNA replication.
inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking.
blocks maturation.
bonds to ergosterol in the cell membrane.

blocks DNA replication.

20. Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat
influenza A virus.
HIV.
herpes zoster virus.
respiratory syncytial virus.
hepatitis C virus.

HIV.

21. Acyclovir is used to treat
influenza A virus.
HIV.
shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.
respiratory syncytial virus.
hepatitis C virus.

shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.

22. The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include
bacterial chromosomal mutations.
synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure.
prevention of drug entry into the cell.
alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

23. The multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause
bacterial chromosomal mutations.
synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure.
prevention of drug entry into the cell.
alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
All of the choices are correct

prevention of drug entry into the cell.

24. Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following except
development of resistance to the drug.
hepatotoxicity.
nephrotoxicity.
diarrhea.
deafness

development of resistance to the drug.

25. A superinfection results from
build up of a drug to toxic levels in the patient.
the wrong drug administered to the patient.
an immune system reaction to the drug.
decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.
All of the choices are correct.

decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.

26. Drug susceptibility testing
determines the patient's response to various antimicrobics.
determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.
determines if normal flora will be affected by antimicrobics.
determines if the drug is increasing to toxic levels in a patient.
determines the pathogen's identity.

determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.

27. A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up?
Kirby-Bauer
antibiogram
E-test
MIC
therapeutic index (TI)

MIC

28. Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed
antibiotics.
narrow-spectrum drugs.
semisynthetic drugs.
synthetic drugs.
broad-spectrum drugs.

narrow-spectrum drugs.

29. A "shotgun" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves
giving a narrow spectrum drug.
culturing the pathogen and identifying it.
performing the disk diffusion assay.
using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater.
using antiviral and antibiotic drugs in combination.

using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater

30. Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe an antimicrobial?
patient age
pregnancy
liver function
alcohol use
All of the choices are correct

All of the choices are correct.

31. All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except
the inability of the drug to diffuse into the infected body compartment.
a mixed infection where some of the pathogens are drug resistant.
not completing the full course of treatment.
a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic.
diminished gastrointestinal absorption due to an underlying condition or age.

a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic

32. All of the following are correct about allergic reactions to drugs except
the drug acts as an antigen.
the greatest number of antimicrobic allergies are to the penicillins.
hives may be the result after the drug is taken.
anaphylaxis can occur.
allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.

allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.

33. Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?
Liver
Kidneys
Gall bladder
Spleen
Stomach

Liver

34. Which of the following antimicrobials is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration?
Penicillin G
Tetraclycline
Gentamicin
Vancomycin
Erythromycin

Tetraclycline

35. Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds?
Because it makes the animals grow too large.
Because it causes infections in the cows and poultry fed them.
Because it raises the price of the meat too high.
Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.
All of the choices are correct.

Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.

36. Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT?
it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis
it directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNA
it inhibits the assembly of HIV particles
it inhibits fusion of the viral envelope and host cell envelope.
it prevents the viral DNA from integrating in the host chromosome

it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis

37. All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza except
they should be given early in an infection.
they prevent assembly and release of the virus.
they are used to treat infections by influenza A and B.
they inhibit fusion and uncoating of the virus.
they are effective prophylactics for influenza.

they prevent assembly and release of the virus.

38. When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection.
True
False

False

39. A semisynthetic antibiotic is a drug which is chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources.
True
False

True

40. Species of Bacillus produce bacitracin and the polymyxins.
True
False

True

41. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat viral respiratory infections.
True
False

False

42. Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction, and conjugation.
True
False

True

43. The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe.
True
False

True

44. Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys.
True
False

False

45. The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface.
True
False

True

46. _____ are plasmids that contain genes for resistance to a drug.

R Factors

47. Sulfonamides are analogs of PABA and, as a result, they inhibit _____ synthesis.

folic acid

48. Drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called

competitive inhibitors

49. The major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold _____.

Penicillium chrysogenum

50. Polyene drugs bind to fungal _____ and cause loss of selective permeability.

cell Membranes

51. If pathogen A is more resistant to an erythromycin disc on a Kirby-Bauer plate compared to pathogen B, then pathogen A will have a _____ zone of inhibition compared to pathogen B.

smaller

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