the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures; energy is always transferred from higher-temperature to lower temperature objects until thermal equilibrium is reached.
the sum of the internal energy of a system plus the product of the system's volume multiplied by the pressure that the system exerts on its surroundings.
the measure of how hot or cold something is; specifically a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
the measurement of heat-related constants such as specific heat or latent heat.
the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1°K or 1°C in a specified way given constant pressure or volume. the most common unit is J/g x C°
molar heat capacity
the energy required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by one degree Celsius
25 Joule Rule
states that the temperature of one mol of any solid metal or solid ionic compound is raised 1 °K when the metal absorbs 25 J of heat.
Uses an insulating vessel; means "not allowing energy to pass through" thus no energy can enter or leave this vessel. As a result, the reaction mixture increases in temperature if the reaction is exothermic or decreases in temperature if the reaction is endothermic. It is used for reactions that are not ignited, such as for reaction in aqueous solutions.
a branch of science concerned with the energy changes that accompany chemical and physical changes.
the study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reaction and physical changes.
the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process.
heat of formation
the heat evolved or absorbed during the formation of one mole of a substance from its component elements
heat of combustion
the energy released as heat by the complete combustion of one mole of a substance.
the measure of the amount of disorder or randomness of a system.
Gibb's free energy
third thermodynamic quantity; predicts if a reaction will be stable or not; the energy in a system that is available for work.
a reaction that is thermodynamically favored and generally can sustain itself once the activation energy has been supplied.
describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings
describes a process in which a system releases heat into the environment.
heat of reaction
the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during a chemical reaction.
molar heat of formation
the energy released or absorbed as heat when one mole of a compound is formed by combination of its elements. Given using their standard states, room temperature and atmospheric pressure. (ΔH°f)