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general, we see the __________ as a means to an end; we see the __________ as an end in itself.

secondary group; primary group

What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?

Group think

Which statement reflects simmel's understanding of the dyad?

dyads are less stable than groups with many members

____________ defines who and what we are in relation to others

status

sociologist use what term to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?

role

what is the term for a persons fairly conosistent pattern of acting, thinking and feeling?

personality

based on both the harlows' research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna the isolated child, one might conclude

long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans

what is the lifelong social experience by which human beings learn culture

socialization

when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in

anticipatory socialization

what is the term for the beliefs, valuse, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a people's way of life?

culture

cultural transmission refers to the process of

passing cultural patterns from one generation to another

standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:

values

wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating

mores

the distinction between high culture and popular culture is based primarily

the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern

a subculture refers to

cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population

the term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that

some cultural elements change more quickly than others

the text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways

invention discovery and diffusion

ethnocentrism refers to

judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture

core cultural values

are not always consistent with one another

in the nature versus nurture debate over what shapes human behavior,most social scientists believe that _____

nurture is far more important than nature

by "taking the role of the other", Mead had in mind

imagining a situation from another person's point of view

the challenge to OLD AGE in Erikson Model is integrity

False

The challenge to young adulthood is making a difference.

False

the failure of young adulthood is isolation

true

which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization?

personality develops over the entire life course in patterened stages

in terms of human freedom, the chapter on socialization leads to the conclusion that

all of the above

in the United States today, the suicide rate is highest for which of these catfories of people?

white males

which of the following historical changes is NOT one of the factors that stimulated the development of the discipline of sociology?

the founding of the roman catholic church

why have sociologists not identified "laws of society" that allow us to predice individual human behavior?

because human behavior is both complex and spontaneous

a statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a

theory

which term is used to describe relatively stable patterns of social behavior

social structure

social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whoe, what is the sociological term for these negative consequences?

social dysfunctions

science can be defined as

a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation

sociologist use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to

information people can verify with their senses

the ideal of objectivity means that a researcher

must adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research

which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or interview

survey

which research method best describes the process that is happening in a group in society

participant observation

Which of the following sociological terms refers to "the recognized violation of cultural norms?"

deviance

"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime

is a violation of norms enacted into law

Here are four assertions about the social foundation of deviance; select the one that is FALSE.

Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.

What is Erving Goffman's term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?

stigma

The chapter-opening account of passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic shows

that social stratification can sometimes be a matter of life and death

Social stratification refers to

ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

In all societies

parents pass their social position on to their children

The common ideology of a class system states that __________ becomes a sign of personal talent and effort, while poverty is viewed as a result of

wealth; personal inadequacy

Which term refers to wages or salary from work plus earnings from any investments

income

relative poverty is

found everywhere

The "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States,

more and more women are becoming poor

In the United States, wealth is distributed more equally than income.

False

About 80 percent of U.S. families have little or no wealth.

true

In the United States, the age category most likely to be poor is children.

True

Comparative research indicates that

although sex has a biological foundation, it varies from place to place as an element of culture.

__________ refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person.

D) Sexual orientation

The weight of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is caused mostly by

human biology, although society plays some role

A reason NOT to permit prostitution as a matter of personal choice involving adults is that

All of the above are correct

There was no distinct category of "homosexual" people until about a century ago

True

Around the world, prostitution is most common in low-income nations where women have fewer economic opportunities.

true

sociobiologists point out that, in every society on earth, people are attracted to youthfulness.

ture

gender refers to:

the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male

the chapter argues that gender is not a matter just of difference but also a matter of:

all of the above are correct

the "beauty myth" refers to the idea that:

women ledarn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance

comparable worth refers to the idea that

all jobs should be rewarded equally

what is the term that refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?

glass celing

the activity that sets the family apart from other social institutions is its focus on"

bearing and rearing of children

a family unit is defined as two or more peope who

are related by blood, marriage, or adoption

the most difficult transition in married life is typically

death of a spouse

describing the lives of working-class women, lillian rubin reported that the typical woman said she wasnte a husband who

had a job and was not violent

jessie bernard claimed that marriage

benefits men more than women

research shows that growing up in a single-parent family

can disadvantage children

mounting research suggests that cohabitation "shacking up"

may actually discourage marriage

in deciding the 1954 case, brow v. Board of education, the supreme court ruled that

racially segregated schools inevitably provide african american children with inferior schooling

Today, almost fifty years after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling,

most children still attend racially imbalanced schools

While race refers to __________ considered important by a society, ethnicity refers to __________.

biological traits; cultural traits

A minority is defined as a category of people who are

visible and disadvantaged

What is the term for a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people

prejudice

Sterotypes are

exaggrated descriptions applied to everyone in some category

while prejudice is a matter of ______, discrimination is a matter of __________.

attitudes; behavior

institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that

bias is built into the operation of today's institutions

Which of the following terms refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity?

pluralism

The adoption of the English language by Mexican immigrants to the United States is an example of

assimilation

The existence of the "Negro leagues" in professional baseball in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s is an example of

segregation

In most cases, race and ethnicity amount to the same thing.

False

Prejudice and discrimination always occur together

false

In the 1950s in the U.S., the rate of teenage pregnancy was actually higher than the rate today.

true

Of Race, Class and Gender: Class is the most important determinant of Social Status.

True

Our blogs are posted (visible) on which website address

blogspot.com

__
l l =

8

Which step is the most important?

decide

Between which two is the main point of procrastination?

decide and act

what words do the two "A"s represent?

Analyze, Act

The step that refers to combining all the 5 previous steps is

Synergize

The first step is:

Recognize

the last step is:

Sharpen the Saw

The Title of the article is 5 ____ on Why Women Earn Less Than Men

myths

a working lifetime of 40 years,women need to work more than 11 additional years to earn

11

Mothers receive a __ percent wage penalty for the first child and a __ percent penalty for each additional child. Men's wages increase __ percent with the birth of their first child.

4, 12, 9

One of the reasons young women have higher earnings stressed in the article

women are now more likely to graduate from college

Women musicians were to be hired or promoted when they auditioned behind a screen so that judges could not know whether they were a man or woman.

more likely

The most important solution stressed by the author was ________.

wealth equality

i want to be:

a sociologist

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