general, we see the __________ as a means to an end; we see the __________ as an end in itself.
secondary group; primary group
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?
Which statement reflects simmel's understanding of the dyad?
dyads are less stable than groups with many members
sociologist use what term to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
what is the term for a persons fairly conosistent pattern of acting, thinking and feeling?
based on both the harlows' research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna the isolated child, one might conclude
long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans
when people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in
what is the term for the beliefs, valuse, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a people's way of life?
cultural transmission refers to the process of
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another
standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating
the distinction between high culture and popular culture is based primarily
the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern
the term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that
some cultural elements change more quickly than others
the text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways
invention discovery and diffusion
in the nature versus nurture debate over what shapes human behavior,most social scientists believe that _____
nurture is far more important than nature
by "taking the role of the other", Mead had in mind
imagining a situation from another person's point of view
which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson's view of socialization?
personality develops over the entire life course in patterened stages
in terms of human freedom, the chapter on socialization leads to the conclusion that
all of the above
in the United States today, the suicide rate is highest for which of these catfories of people?
which of the following historical changes is NOT one of the factors that stimulated the development of the discipline of sociology?
the founding of the roman catholic church
why have sociologists not identified "laws of society" that allow us to predice individual human behavior?
because human behavior is both complex and spontaneous
social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whoe, what is the sociological term for these negative consequences?
sociologist use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to
information people can verify with their senses
the ideal of objectivity means that a researcher
must adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research
which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or interview
which research method best describes the process that is happening in a group in society
Which of the following sociological terms refers to "the recognized violation of cultural norms?"
Here are four assertions about the social foundation of deviance; select the one that is FALSE.
Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.
What is Erving Goffman's term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
The chapter-opening account of passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic shows
that social stratification can sometimes be a matter of life and death
The common ideology of a class system states that __________ becomes a sign of personal talent and effort, while poverty is viewed as a result of
wealth; personal inadequacy
The "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States,
more and more women are becoming poor
Comparative research indicates that
although sex has a biological foundation, it varies from place to place as an element of culture.
__________ refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person.
D) Sexual orientation
The weight of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is caused mostly by
human biology, although society plays some role
A reason NOT to permit prostitution as a matter of personal choice involving adults is that
All of the above are correct
Around the world, prostitution is most common in low-income nations where women have fewer economic opportunities.
sociobiologists point out that, in every society on earth, people are attracted to youthfulness.
gender refers to:
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male
the chapter argues that gender is not a matter just of difference but also a matter of:
all of the above are correct
the "beauty myth" refers to the idea that:
women ledarn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
what is the term that refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
the activity that sets the family apart from other social institutions is its focus on"
bearing and rearing of children
describing the lives of working-class women, lillian rubin reported that the typical woman said she wasnte a husband who
had a job and was not violent
in deciding the 1954 case, brow v. Board of education, the supreme court ruled that
racially segregated schools inevitably provide african american children with inferior schooling
Today, almost fifty years after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling,
most children still attend racially imbalanced schools
While race refers to __________ considered important by a society, ethnicity refers to __________.
biological traits; cultural traits
What is the term for a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people
while prejudice is a matter of ______, discrimination is a matter of __________.
institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that
bias is built into the operation of today's institutions
Which of the following terms refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity?
The adoption of the English language by Mexican immigrants to the United States is an example of
The existence of the "Negro leagues" in professional baseball in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s is an example of
In the 1950s in the U.S., the rate of teenage pregnancy was actually higher than the rate today.
Mothers receive a __ percent wage penalty for the first child and a __ percent penalty for each additional child. Men's wages increase __ percent with the birth of their first child.
4, 12, 9
One of the reasons young women have higher earnings stressed in the article
women are now more likely to graduate from college
Women musicians were to be hired or promoted when they auditioned behind a screen so that judges could not know whether they were a man or woman.