Cardiovascular System

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Chapter 8

What is the cardiovascular system composed of?

the heart and blood vessels

Where is the heart located?

the mediastinum, between the lungs

What is the main characteristic of an artery?

they carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to all cells in the body

What is a capillary?

a microscopic vessel that branches out of the arteries

What is the function of a capillary?

to exchange products between blood and body cells

What is a venule?

formed by capillaries merging together

What is a vein?

formed by venules merging together, carry blood back to the heart

What are the three major blood vessels?

arteries, capillaries, and veins

Why are the walls of an artery thicker than a vein?

to withstand the amount of pressure that results from the contractions of the heart

What are the three layers of the wall of an artery?

the tunica externa, tunica media, and tunica intima

What is the tunica externa?

the outer coating of a vein or artery, composed of connective tissue that provides strength and flexibility

What is the tunica media?

the middle layer of a vein or artery, composed of smooth muscle

What is the function of the tunica media?

to alter the size of the lumen of the vessel, which causes either vasoconstriction (narrowing) or vasodilation (widening) in the vessel

What is the tunica intima?

the thin, inner lining of the lumen of the vessel, composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth surface inside the vein or artery

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis

leaflet

thin, flattened structure; term used to describe the leaf-shaped structures that compose a heart valve

lumen

tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube

regurgitation

backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening

sphincter

circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening

vasoconstriction

narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually a result of diseases, medications, or by physiological processes

vasodilation

widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls

viscosity

state of being sticky or gummy

pulse

the surge of blood felt in the arteries when blood is pumped from the heart

Why does a cut or severed artery lead to profuse bleeding?

the pressure against the arterial walls

What does arterial blood contain?

oxygen

oxygenated

blood containing a high concentration of oxygen

arterioles

small arteries

capillaries

microscopic vessels which branch from the arterioles, join the arterial system with the venous system

What is the function of the capillaries?

to exchange water, respiratory gases, macromolecules, metabolites, and waste between the blood and adjacent cells

What are capillaries composed of?

a single layer of endothelial cells

Why does blood flow slowly through the capillaries?

their vast number, allows sufficient time for exchange of necessary substances

What is the function of a vein?

to carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart

What structures join to form the veins?

venules

Where do venules develop from?

the union of capillaries

Why is the amount of pressure in veins less that in arteries?

because the arteries absorb most of the pressure exerted from the heart

What methods do veins use to return blood to the heart?

skeletal muscle contractions, gravity, respiratory activity, and valves

What is a valve?

the small structures within veins that prevent the backflow of blood

What blood vessels use peristalsis for transporting blood through the body?

veins, especially large veins

deoxygenated

blood with a low concentration of oxygen

What is the characteristic color of oxygenated blood?

bright red

What is the characteristic color of deoxygenated blood?

purple

What is the heart?

a muscular pump that propels blood to the entire body through a closed vascular system

Where (besides the mediastinum) is the heart located?

the pericardium sac

What are the tissue layers of the heart?

endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium

endocardium

serous membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins

myocardium

the middle, muscle layer of the heart

epicardium

the outermost layer of the heart

What are the four chambers that the heart is divided into?

right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle

What is the function of the right and left atrium?

to collect blood

What are the two upper chamber of the heart?

right and left atrium

What is the function of the right and left ventricle?

to pump blood away from the heart

What are the two lower chambers of the heart?

right and left ventricle

Where does the right ventricle pump blood to?

the lungs, for oxygenation

Where does the left ventricle pump blood to?

throughout the entire body

Systemic Circulation

the process by which the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood throughout the entire body

Pulmonary Circulation

the process by which the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation

The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from what two veins?

superior and inferior vena cava

superior vena cava

collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body

inferior vena cava

collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body

tricuspid valve

the valve in which deoxygenated blood passes from the right atrium to the right ventricle

How many leaflets does the tricuspid valve consist of?

three

When the heart contracts, blood leaves the right ventricle by way of what two structures?

the left and right pulmonary arteries

When the heart contracts and blood passes through the pulmonary arteries, what valve closes to prevent regurgitation?

the pulmonic valve, a.k.a the pulmonary semilunar valve

What function do the right and left pulmonary veins have?

they carry oxygenated blood back to the heart through the left atrium

mitral (bicuspid) valve

consists of two leaflets, the valve in which oxygenated blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle

Aorta

the largest artery in the body, oxygenated blood leaves the heart through this artery upon contraction of the left ventricle

Aortic Semilunar Valve

contained in the aorta, prevents regurgitation of blood back into the left ventricle from the aorta

Aortic Valve

contained in the aorta, prevents regurgitation of blood back into the left ventricle from the aorta

Right Coronary Artery

the artery which vascularizes the right side of the heart

Left Coronary Artery

the artery which vascularizes the left side of the heart

What two arteries does the left coronary artery divide into?

the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery

What is the only type of vein which carries oxygenated blood?

the pulmonary veins

conduction tissue

specialized cardiac tissue with the sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses within the heart

What are the four masses of highly specialized cells within the heart that form the conductive tissue?

Sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, bundle of His (AV bundle), Purkinje fibers

What is known as the "pacemaker" of the heart?

the Sinoatrial node (SA node)

Which part of the conductive tissue receives the impulses discharged from the SA node?

The atrioventricular (AV) node

What is the function of the atrioventricular (AV) node?

to cause the atria to contract by receiving electrical impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node

What is the function of the bundle of His (AV bundle)?

to relay impulses from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers

Where is the SA node located?

in the upper portion of the right atrium

Where is the AV node located?

at the base of the right atrium

What is the function of the Purkinje fibers?

to transmit electrical impulses to the ventricles, causing them to contract

What is an electrocardiograph?

an instrument used to detect the weak electrical current generated by the conduction system within the heart

What does the P wave denote?

the depolarization of the atria

What does the QRS complex denote?

the depolarization of the ventricles

What does the T wave denote?

the repolarization of the ventricles

What does the term depolarization mean?

contraction

What does the term repolarization mean?

recovery

What does blood pressure (BP) measure?

the force of blood against arterial walls during the systolic and diastolic phases of the heartbeat

What is the systolic phase of a heartbeat?

the contraction phase, when blood is forced out of the heart, produces the maximum force

What is the diastolic phase?

the relaxation phase, when the ventricles are filling with blood, produces the weakest force

Which measurement is given first when displaying blood pressure?

systolic pressure

Which measurement is given lastly when displaying blood pressure?

diastolic pressure

What is hypertension?

a consistently elevated blood pressure

What is hypotension?

decreased blood pressure

What are the factors that influence blood pressure?

resistance of blood flow in blood vessels, pumping action of the heart, viscosity of blood, quantity of blood in the vascular system

Where does gas exchange occur in a fetus?

the placenta

Where does the procurement of nutrients occur in a fetus?

the placenta

Where does the elimination of metabolic waste occur in a fetus?

the placenta

What factors influence blood pressure?

resistance of flow in the vessels, pumping action of the heart, viscosity of blood, elasticity of arteries, and the quantity of blood in the vascular system

What is the umbilical cord?

contains 2 arteries, carries deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta, and after oxygenation in the placenta the blood returns through the umbilical vein

Most of the blood in the umbilical vein enters the inferior vena cava of the fetus through what duct?

The ductus venosus

After the blood enters the inferior vena cava of the fetus where does it travel to?

The right atrium of the heart

After entering the right atrium, where does most of the blood travel to in a fetus CV system?

The left atrium

What is the small opening in a fetal atrial septum which allows blood to travel from the right atrium to the left?

The foramen ovale, which closes shortly after birth

From the left atrium, where does blood travel to in a fetal CV system?

The left ventricle

After leaving the left ventricle, where does blood exit the heart in order to travel to the head upper extremities in a fetus?

The aorta

Because fetal lungs are nonfunctional, most of the blood in the pulmonary arteries is shunted to the aorta through what duct?

The ductus arteriosus

What happens to the ductus arteriosus immediately after birth?

It withers and closes off to allow blood to freely travel from the pulmonary arteries to the lungs

As circulation increases in the neonate, the increase of blood flow to the right atrium forces what opening to close which establishes normal circulation?

The foramen ovale

aneurysm/o

widened blood vessel

aneurysmorrhaphy

the suture of an aneurysm

-rrhaphy

suture

angi/o

vessel (usually blood or lymph)

angioplasty

surgical repair of a vessel

-plasty

repair

vascul/o

vessel (usually blood or lymph)

vasculitis

inflammation of (blood) vessels

-itis

inflammation

aort/o

aorta

aortostenosis

narrowing of the aorta

-stenosis

narrowing, stricture

arteri/o

artery

ateriorrhexis

rupture of an artery

-rrhexis

rupture

arteriol/o

arteriole

arteriolitis

inflammation of an arteriole

atri/o

atrium

atriomegaly

enlargement of the atrium

ather/o

fatty plaque

atheroma

tumor composed of fatty plaque

-oma

tumor

cardi/o

heart

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

electr/o

electricity

electrocardiogram

a record of the electrical (impulses) of the heart

-gram

recording

embol/o

embolus (plug)

embolectomy

removal of an embolus

hemangi/o

blood vessel

hemangioma

tumor of blood vessels

my/o

muscle

myocardial

pertaining to the heart muscle

-al

pertaining to

phleb/o

vein

phlebectasis

expansion of a vein

ven/o

vein

venostasis

standing still of (blood in a) vein

phlebostasis

standing still of (blood in a) vein

-stasis

standing still

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