What does metabolism refer to?
The sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism
What is energy stored in the form of?
Enzymes are proteins that have what main function?
To lower the activation energy
When a cofactor is an organic molecule, what is it called?
What is the removal of one or more electrons from the substrate called?
What is the addition of a phosphate to a molecule called?
What are the three principle stages of the respiration of glucose?
Glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain (system)
What is the end product of glycolysis?
What are NADH and FADH2 used for in the electron transport chain?
Which principle step of the respiration of glucose produces the most ATP?
Electron transport chain (system)
Which general class of organisms is known as "heat-loving"?
Which of the following items is/are required for microorganisms to be cultured properly?
Water, Nutrients, environment and time
Which type of medium is good for experimental work?
What is the best definition of a colony?
A visible mass of microbial cells that theoretically arose from one cell
What does a plate count assume?
Each bacterium grows into a single colony.
If you have 500,000 cells to start and you do a 104 dilution (a step series of 1:10 dilutions), how many cells do you have?
Using the same information from question 16, how many cells would you theoretically have after the second dilution (1:10 performed in each step)?
If E.coli are rapidly dividing as fast as possible, which phase of growth are they in?
If the same cells are experiencing a decline in total numbers because more are dying than new cells being formed, which phase of growth is the organism in?
Which counting method for bacteria uses a confidence limit typically to assess the number of probable cells in a liquid medium?
Most probable number
A mesophile is an example of an organism named for what type of growth requirement?
What is the temperature range most likely to spoil food the quickest?
30 degrees Celsius
What do you call a bacteria that grows at 0 degrees Celcius?
What is a nutrient material prepared for the growth of microorganisms in a laboratory called?
What culture media uses suppression of unwanted microbes and encourages desired microbes.
Why does heat kill microorganisms?
It denatures the essentially three dimensional shape of their proteins
Which of the following is a chemical method of microbial control?
The use of Phenolics
How does alcohol help control microbial growth?
Lipid dissolution and protein denaturation
Which of the following is most resistant to chemical biocides?
What is the purpose of the disc diffusion method?
To evaluate the efficacy of a chemical agent
The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is
to prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells (increase the affinity of the primary stain)
This microscope produces an image of a light cell against a dark background; internal structures are not visible.
Which of the following is not correct?
1 nm = 10-6 µm
The counterstain in the Gram stain is
a basic dye
The light that hits the specimen is scattered and does not come directly from the light source in this microscope.
The appearance of gram-positive bacteria after addition of the first dye in the Gram stain is
The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after addition of the mordant in the Gram stain is
The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after addition of the decolorizing agent in the Gram stain is
The appearance of gram-positive bacteria after adding the counterstain in the Gram stain is
The appearance of gram-negative bacteria after completeing the Gram stain is
pink or red
By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the plasma membrane?
Maintains cell shape
All of the following are lacking a cell wall except
Which of the following statements is true?
Endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes.
Which of the following is generally not true of prokaryotic cells?
They possess 80S ribosomes.
Which of the following is not true about gram-negative cell walls?
When alcohol is applied in the Gram staining technique, it dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer.
Which of the following is not a structure found in prokaryotic cells?
Where are phospholipids most likely found in a eukaryotic cell?
B and C
What does the term strepto- signify?
The arrangement of bacteria into chains
Bacillus and coccus are terms used to describe what about bacteria?
Their DNA is not associated with histones.
Their cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Membrane enclosed organelles.
What are Coccus, Bacillus, and Spiral are examples of?
What is murein?
This enzyme joins two molecules
This enzyme removes groups of atoms without hydrolysis
This enzyme transfers functional groups
This process is an ATP generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule.
What is the difference between homolactic and heterolactic fermentation?
Heterolactic organisms produce lactic acid as well as other types of acids or alcohols
Archaea are often found in
Many algae have cell walls composed of
In the name Escherichia coli, coli is the
Which of the following is not a domain in the three-domain system?
Regarding Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is true?
All of the above
Which of the following is a scientific name?
The concept that living cells can arise only from other living cells is called
Whose experiments did Lazzaro Spallanzani repeat to disprove and suggest spontaneous generation of microorganisms was incorrect?
What are the steps in Koch's postulates used for?
To relate a specific microbe to a specific disease
Several monumental achievements during the 20th century were possible due to groundwork laid in which "Age" of microbiology?
Which molecule has chemicals in genes?
Starch, dextran, glycogen, and cellulose are polymers of
Which of the following is a base?
NaOH ® Na+ + OH-
The antimicrobial drug imidazole inhibits sterol synthesis. This would most likely interfere with
eukaryotic plasma membranes
The smallest unit of matter is a(n)
All atoms with the same number of protons that behave the same way are classified as
The valence shell of an atom is
the outer most shell
The strongest of the three chemical bonds is
What bond occurs when opposite charges combine (the forming of two ions)?
What is a molecule called that undergoes a decomposition reaction that yields Hydrogen Ion and anion products?
Simple and single celled prokaryotes. They have various shapes and arrangements
Photosynthetic eukaryotes with both asexual and sexual reproductive forms
Multicellular animal parasite
What bond is formed when opposite charges come together?
These kinds of bonds share electrons.
Identify the large and diverse group of organic compounds that includes sugars and starches.
This microscope contains a opaque disc that blocks light that would normally enter the objective lens directly.
This technique permits detailed examination of internal structures in living organisms.
This type of microscopy is based on the wave nature of light.
You would view a gram-stained specimen using this microscope type: