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mitosis

division of the nucleus that creates genetically identical daughter cells

cytokinesis

final step of cell division in which the cytoplasm and organelles are divided into two new cells

interphase

longest stage of cell cycle; cell grows, does its job, and copies DNA

prophase

stage of mitosis in which nuclear envelope and nucleolus disappear and chromatin coils into chromosomes

metaphase

shortest stage of mitosis; spindles attach to centromeres and chromosomes moved to middle of cell

anaphase

stage of mitosis in which chromosomes split and sister chromatids move apart toward opposite poles of the cell

telophase

stage of mitosis in which nucleus splits, nuclear envelope and nucleoli reappear, and chromosomes return to chromatin

cell plate

a developing cell wall that appears in plant cells during telophase

centromere

region on chromosome where sister chromatids attach

spindle fiber

microfilaments that move chromosomes around the cell and assist with cleavage during cytokinesis

cleavage furrow

indentation(s) that indicate splitting of cell in animal cells during telophase and cytokinesis

sister chromatids

the two identical halves of a chromosome that attach at the centromere

cancer

disease that is the result of uncontrolled cell division

carcinogen

a factor that causes cancer; could include chemicals, radiation, viruses, or heredity

tumor

a mass of cancerous cells

benign

a tumor that is encapsulated and not likely to spread

malignant

a tumor that has potential to spread throughout the body

metastasis

the spread of cancer cells throughout the body

mutation

a change in DNA sequence, often caused by carcinogens

chromosome

tightly coiled packets of DNA found in the nucleus during cell division

chromatin

the uncoiled form of DNA that exists during interphase

stem cell

an undifferentiated cell that can become any cell type in the body

differentiation

a process of specialization in which a cell becomes a specific cell type within the body

G1

stage of interphase in which the cell rapidly grows

S-Phase

stage of interphase in which DNA is replicated

G2

stage of interphase in which cell is checked for errors and final preparation for cell division occurs

G0

stage of interphase in which the cell "rests" or stops the division process

apoptosis

programmed cell death that occurs in the cells between fingers and toes and in cells that have been identified as "damaged"

centrioles

rod shaped structures in animal cells that may assist in spindle fiber formation

cell cycle

the sequence of growth (interphase) and division (mitosis) in a cell

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