ANAT 270: Pathophysiology

Created by rnicolas09 

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Quiz 2

Adult hemoglobin

Two Alpha
Two BETA

Child hemoglobiin

Two Alpha
Two GAMMA

Weakness, angina, fainting, tachycardia, sweating and pallor, pain in his bones and sternum

Signs of Anemia

What causes Iron deficiency Anemia?

- Hypochromic and microcytic erythrocytes
- Poikilocytosis (Irregular Shape)
-Anisocytosis (Irregular Size)

What bronchus is WIDER, SHORTER, AND MORE VERTICAL and contains 3 lobes?

Right main bronchus

Type 1 cells

Form up to 97% of the alveolar cells; are flat and allow for exchange to the adjacent capillaries

Type 2 cells

Form up to 3% of the alveolar cells; are large and round; secrete surfactant; proliferate after lung damage; are source of precursors for new alveolar cells (type 1 & 2)

Iron in HEMOGLOBIN

In the FERROUS (Fe 2+) state, and CAN bind O2

Iron in METHEMOGLOBIN

In the FERRIC (Fe3+) state, and is UNABLE to bind O2

Asthma

Characterized by hyperresponisiveness of the airways, resulting in bronchoconstriction

Panacinar (panlobar) emphysema

Characterized by dilation of the ENTIRE acinus (including the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs), distributed uniformly throughout the lung. Associated with AL- ANTITRYSPIN DEFICIENCY

Centriacinar (centrilobular)

Characterized by dilation of the PROXIMAL part of the acinus (the respiratory bronchioles). The pattern of involvement is more irregular, and is often localized to the upper parts of the lungs. Associated with SMOKING

Emphysema

Destruction of alveolar walls lead to the loss of elastic recoil within the lung and dilation of the terminal air spaces

Extrinsic asthma

Mediated by a TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY reaction involving IGE, MAST CELLS, often BEGINS IN CHILDHOOD, in patients with a FAMILY HISTORY OF ALLERGY

Intrinsic Asthma

Includes asthma associated with CHRONIC BRONCHITIS as well as exercise or cold induced asthma

Acute respiratory distress sysndrome (ARDS)

A syndrome that results from DIFFUSE ALVEOLAR DAMAGE and LEAKAGE OF FLUID OUT OF THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES into the intterstitium and alveolar spaces.

Lung Cancer

Bronchogenic carcinoma, is the leading cause of cancer related death in both men and women and is closely linked with cigarette smoking

Pneumonia

Infection of lung parenchyma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly 10% of all hospital admissions and for approximately 80,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.

What can cause Pneumonia?

Viral URI, alcohol abuse, cigarette smoking, and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Tuberculosis

1/3 of the world's population has been affected by this disease, and there 2-3 million deaths due to this disease.

Tuberculosis Presentation

Weight loss, fever and night sweats

Endocardium

Innermost layer

Myocardium

Middle

Pericardium

Outer layer

Left coronary artery (LCA)

Covers more of the heart

Fast-response action potentials

Occurs in the atrial and ventricular myocytes and Purkinje fibers. Fast inward Na+ current. Causes depolarization. Occurs in phase 0

Slow-response action potentials

Occurs in the SA (Sinoatril) and AV (Atrioventricular) nodes. Slow inward Ca2+ current. Causes re-polarization (Potassium leaves cell)

Preload

The load seen by cardiac myocytes while the heart is in its relaxed state. It represents the stretch on the filled ventricle during diastole, before contraction takes place.

Afterload

Load against which the myocytes must contract to generate cardia output. It represents the force that must be generated to push blood from LV into the aorta.

Cardiac Output

The volume of blood pumped per minute from either ventricle, which should be equal in the absence of pathology

S1 (MT)

Due to closure of the Mitral and Tricuspid valves

S2 (AP)

Due to closure of the Aortic and Pulmonic valves

RAAS (Renin-angiotensin 1 -aldosterone system)

Activated by decreased blood pressure
Renin is secreted and increases conversion of angiotensiogen to angiotensin,

Arrhythmias

Abnormalities of electrical rhythm that result from alterations of impulse conduction, impulse formation, or both

Hypertension risk factors

African American race, obesity, diabetes, advanced age, oral contraceptives, family history, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking

Hypertension diagnosis

BP more than 140/90 mmHg, confirmed on THREE separate occasions, or single reading of more than 170/110 mmHg.

Hypertension treatment "THERAPEUTIC LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS"

Weight loss, decreased alcohol intake, increased exercise, reduced NA intake, and smoking cessation

Malignant Hypertension

Rapid increase in BP, usually higher than 240/120 mmHg, associated with organ damage ("Flea -bitten kidneys")

Acute infective endocarditis

Affects normal heart valves and is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus to colonize normal valves

Subacute infective endocarditis

Colonizes a previously damaged valve (after oral surgery or poor dentition). It is most often caused by Streptococcus viridans

Endocarditis Presentation

Fever, chills, weight loss, systemic emboli, petechiae, Janeway's lesions, Osler's nodes, splinter hemorrhages, and valvular involvement

Congestive Heart Failure (T/F)

Defined as the inability of the heart to generate a sufficient cardiac output to meet the metabolic demands of the body.

Congestive Heart Failure Presentation (T/F)

Dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, pulmonary edema, reduced renal perfusion, and an S3 heart sound. Most of these are due to failure of LV output and increased pulmonary venous pressure. Generally caused by left heart failure.

Rheumatic Fever

Is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Usually affects children 5-10 years

MODS (Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome)

Involves the lung, kidney, heart, and liver

Shock Presentation

Tachycardia, oliguria, hypotension, weak pulses, mental status changes, and cool extremities

Stable Angina

The most common form in which pain is induced by exertion.

Unstable angina

More likely to lead to MI than stable angina. Pain occurs at rest

Prinzmetal's angina

Also called Variant angina, it presents as intermittent chest pain at rest that is not related to activity, stress, or BP. Occurs at night and at rest due to coronary artery vasospasm

Myocardial Infarction (MI) (T/F)

Due to myocardial necrosis (died) secondary to inadequate cardiac tissue perfusion. Q wave and ST will be seen on ECG

Myocardial Infarction (MI) Presentation

Patients will describe prolonged (more than 30-45 minutes) crushing chest pain similar to angina, but not relieved by nitroglycerin, nausea, vomiting, sweating, shortness of breath and weakness

Tropin (T/F)

Starts to elevate 4-6 hours after the pain starts and last 7-10 days. It is more specific than CK-MB. It is the best to measure MI.

Erythroprotein is produce in the ______?

Kidney

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