Chapter 16/17 World War II

48 terms by kyswisher

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Nationalism

loyalty to one's country above all else.

Joseph Stalin

totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union

Totalitarian

Complete control over citizens, individuals have no rights, government suppresses all opposition.

Bennito Mussolini

totalitarian dictator of Italy

Fascism

Stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of the individuals.

Adolf Hitler

totalitarian dictator of Germany, head of the Nazi Party. Fascist leader.

Mein Kampf

Book written by Adolf Hitler outlining his ideas about Nazism that became the plan of action for the Nazi Party.

Nazism

The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.

Third Reich

The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in 1933.

Neutrality Acts

No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.

Winston Churchill

Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid and who viewed the signing of the Munich Agreement as appeasement.

Appeasement

Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.

Nonaggression Pact

Agreement between Germany and Russia not to fight each other. Led to the invasion of Poland.

Blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

Axis Powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

Selective Training and service Act

First peacetime military draft, 16 million men (21-35) were registered, 1 million drafted for one year- only to serve in the western hemishpere.

Lend Lease Act

Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."

The Atlantic Charter

A declaration of the right to freedom of trade

Allies

United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union (Big 3)

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

WAAC: May 15, 1942 women volunteers could serve in noncombatant positions; nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians

Manhattan Project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

War Production Board

government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials

Rationing

a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use

Battle of Stalingrad

a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter -turning point of war in Eastern Europe

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.

Operation Overlord

The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast

Omar Bradley

United States general who unleashed a massive air and land bombardment in the Allied victory in World War II (1893-1981)

George Patton

American General who led the Third Army to liberate Paris

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

The Yalta Conference

FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at Yalta, on the Black Sea, in Feb. 1945 to plan the future of Europe after WWII.

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day - May 8, 1945

Harry S. Truman

33rd U.S. President. Took office after FDR's death. Made the decision to use the atomic bomb.

The Nuremberg Trials

were series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.

Internment

the name for the forced relocation and confinement of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps

Doolittle's Raid

bombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities; following the attack on Pearl. Raised American morale

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. The U.S. avenged Pearl Harbor

Island Hopping

strategy of Allies in WWII of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others

Kamikaze

a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II

Iwo Jima

a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders

Battle for Okinawa

Last island to be taken in the Island Hopping before the invasion of Japan.

J. Robert oppenheimer

leader of Manhattan project

Enola Gay

name of the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb

Little Boy

the name of the FIRST atomic bomb, dropped on Hiroshima

V-J Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, September 2, 1945

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

Fat Man

name of the SECOND atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki

Nagasaki

Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

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