oasis cities of Central Asia
Cities such as Samarkand, Merv, Khotan, and Dunhuang that became centers of trans-Eurasian trade.
Land-based trade routes that linked Eurasia
Foreign-born general who led a major revolt against Tang dynasty in 755-763, perhaps provoking China's turn to xenophobia. (ahn loo-shahn)
Buddhism was China's only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth-century; Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries C.E. through a series of cultural accomodations. At first supported by the state, Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society.
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute-- produce of value from their countries-- to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often more valuable).
Major nomadic confederacy that was established ca. 200 B.C.E. and eventually reached form Manchuria to Central Asia. (SHE-OONG-noo)