oasis cities of Central Asia
Cities such as Samarkand, Merv, Khotan, and Dunhuang that became centers of trans-Eurasian trade.
Foreign-born general who led a major revolt against Tang dynasty in 755-763, perhaps provoking China's turn to xenophobia. (ahn loo-shahn)
Buddhism was China's only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth-century; Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries C.E. through a series of cultural accomodations. At first supported by the state, Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society.
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute-- produce of value from their countries-- to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often more valuable).