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imitation

Example:
Adult: He's going out
Child: He go out

imitation

what children hear is not reciprocated in what they say

Recast

the repetition of correction of a child's utterances

Recast

Adults provide the correct model by correcting child

Recast

Ex.
Child: it fall
Adult: it fell?

Analogy

When a child hears a sentence and uses it as a model to form other sentences

analogy

Ex
Heard: I painted a red barn
Spoken: I painted a blue barn

connectionalism

relies in part on behaviorist learning principles such as analogy and reinforcement

connectionalism

no grammatical rules are stored anywhere

connecitonalism

Ex
Play-played
dance-danced
drink-drank

connectionalism

repeated exposure to verb pairs in the input reinforces the connection between them

connectionalism

mimicking rule-like behavior

innateness hypothesis

children are equipped with an innate sense for language

innateness hypothesis

Universal grammar, provides children with a head start

innateness hypothesis

child extracts grammar rules from environment, such as word order and movement rules

stages of language acquisition

babbling, one word stage, two word stage

babbling

early stage- repeated consonant sequences, mama, baba, dada

babbling

12 most frequent consonants in the world's language make up 95% of consonants used in babbling

babbling

after the early stages, only sounds in the target language are used

first words

children realize words are related to meanings

first words

uttereances that contain one word are holophrasic of "whole phrase" because 1 word conveys a more complex message

overgeneralization

applying grammar rules in areas they don't apply ("I writed a story"; goed; comed)

overgeneralization

shows that children have acquired the regular rules but hasn't yet learned the there ar exceptions

overgeneralization

child mixes regular and irregular rules, then figures out irregular rules an applies them
foot foots > foot feet
brought broughted > brought went

two word stage

nomination, notice, recurrence, nonexistence, attribute, possessive, locative, agent , action

nomination

consists of "that" plus a noun, that book
two word stage

notice

hi plus noun, hi book
two word stage

recurrence

more plus noun, more mile
two word stage

nonexistence

all gone/no more plus noun, no more juice
two word stage

attribute

adj plus noun, big train
two word stage

possessive

noun plus noun, mommy lunch
two word stage

locative

noun plus noun, sweater chair
two word stage

locative

verb plus noun, walk street
two word stage

agent

action noun plus verb, Eve read
two word stage

action

object verb plus noun, put book
two word stage

over-regulation

- when learning language, children over-apply rules. - they begin to over apply the rules in language so they begin to make mistakes ex. both my foots hurt.

over-regulation

shows that language acquisition isn't completely from imitation, seeing ass over-regulation is used even when children aren't exposed to bad english

over-regulation

children treat irregular verbs as and nouns as if they were regular

sociolinguistics

the study of linguistics in society

sociolinguistics

concerned with how language variation is correlated with social organization

dialect

variety of language that is mutuallyintelligible

regional dialect

dialect spoken in specific area, brooklyn, boston, texas

standard dialect

considered the norm, implicitly accepted and expect, model from news broadcast

standard dialect

used in teaching, books, speaking to someone of authority

lingua fanca

a language common to speakers of diverse languages that can be used for communication and commerce

pidgin

a contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when people with different languages need to communicate

creole

a language that begins as a pidgin and eventually becomes that native language of a speech community

speech registers

styles of speech that are appropriate for different context

speech registers

depends on on the context you are in

comparative linguistics

deals with how language changes

the great vowel shift

A set of regular sound changes affecting the long (tense) vowels of English that took place around the 15th century. Changes account for many of the discrepencies between the pronunciation of English words and their spelling (established before GVS took place)

comparative reconstruction

the creation of the original form of an ancestor language on the basis of comparable forms in languages that are descendants.

proto-language

a reconstructed pre-historic language that is the ancestor to historic languages

cognates

Words that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.

regular sound correspondence

u: and au
house

grimm's law

a sound shift that took place in all the Germanic languages, distinguishing them from the other non-Germanic Indo-European languages

endangered language

the language has hope, but within the next century may not by learned by children anymore. is being learned now but probably won't later

language death

extinction of a language due to extermination of speakers or language shift

[z]

after voiced

[s]

after voiceless

add [s]

for 3rd person verb "he giggles"

contractable copula

fred's cold

uncontractable copula

who's cold? fred is.

contractable auxiliary

fred's running

uncontractable auxiliary

who's running? fred is.

deletion

/f:/ is now /f/

addition

there was no /v/ in olde English

changing of sounds

/x/ became /k/
elk

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