1) What's the basic purpose of theatre design?
To transform something so it may be seen, by a willing viewer as something else
What fostered the first great phase of scene design?
The development of European indoor stages which was just a flat scenery fostered scene design
When did controllable indoor lighting first come into use?
19th century (first by gas, then electricity)
What is a box set?
A 3D construction of interconnected hard-covered "flats" (representing walls and ceilings of a room) which is then filled with real furniture and real properties taken from ordinary real-world environments. Major scenic format
Difference between realistic scene design and metaphoric scene?
Realistic attempts to depict in great detail a specific time and place in the real world where the play's events are presumed to take place while
• Metamorphic favors visual images that seek to evoke the productions intended theme, mood, or social/political implications—reminds us we are in a theatre, it is more conceptual than literal and more theatric than photographic
Whats a scrim?
A loosely wove, gauzy fabric long a staple of theatre "magic" because its opaque when lit from the audiences side but almost transparent when lit from behind and its used to make actors and sets seem to instantly disappear or appear simply with a flick of switch on light board
Whats the purpose of the overhead fluorescent lighting in Arnold Bennets "History Guy"?
The fluorescent lighting dominating the set are not required for actual lighting but convey the institutional rigidity of modern education against which both teachers and students struggle to engage-and assert- their basic humanity.
What 2 inventions brought stage lighting into the modern phase?
Invention of electricity and gaslight- has made it less strictly showy and more pertinent to individuals works and dramatic action.
What's the major advantage of electricity over gas lighting?
The hazard of a live flame was over, and mostly * has advantage of being self-starting because it doesn't need to be relit and easily can be turned off/on, also very flexible
What are the 2 primary considerations of lighting design?
Visibility-ensures audience sees what it needs to see
• Focus-ensures audience sees it without undue distraction
What are the 2 common goals of the lighting designer?
Versimilitude- lifelikeness so that it appears like its from natural sources
Atmospheric- may or may not suggest a familiar source and can be used to evoke a mood appropriate to a scene or to a moments action-gloomy, smoky, regal for example.
What are lighting practicals?
Making lighting seem "real" such as lamps, moonlight, firelight, streetlight, neon signs, headlights of cars, etc
What are the 2 major preparations of the lighting designer?
Light plot- plan or series of plans showing the placement of each lighting instrument-its type, wattage, size and the appropriate connection and movement
Cue sheet- list of the occasions when lights change in intensity or in color or move.
Both these are developed with director and members of the design team
What are the 4 functions of modern costume design?
1. Concert with its ancient origins and retain at least a hint of the ceremonial magic that ancient priests and shamans once conjured
2. Show us what sort of world we are asked to enter, not only historical place but social and cultural values as well
3. Express specific individuality of each characters roles- at a glance you can tell age, status, wealth, etc
4. To serve as a wearable clothing for the actor
What is the difference between costume roughs and renderings?
Roughs-when the designer creates a series of quick sketches
Renderings- actual designs supplemented with notes about each costumes accessories, hairstyle and construction details
What are 2 functions of stage makeup? Give examples of illustrative and stylized.
• Illustrative function-the obvious one, the means by which the actor changes his/her appearance to resemble that of the character. Useful in making someone look older or younger or making someone look like a public figure
• Stylized function-beyond realism, makeup that is ceremonial and that represents actor as a superhuman presence. Face painting of traditional Chinese actor- mostly used in European and asian theatre, also circus.
What are job responsibilities of production stage manager, assistant stage manager, and tech director?
Production stage manager- coordinates the scheduling, staffing, and budgeting of every element of the production from acting rehearsals to building and operations. In full charge of show
• Assistant Stage Manager- works for production stage manager, set out props, follow the script, prompt actors who are off book when they forget lines, calls show from fixed off stage seat and gives cues. Serves as backstage eyes.
• Tech director- responsible for scenery, lighting,sound, stage machinery, and everything technical designed to operate on stage,. Requires great knowledge in engineering, drafting, construction, and team management.
What are the 2 foundations of theatre?
Ritual: collective ceremony performed by members of a society for religious or cultural reasons
• Storytelling: came after ritual and it is the recount of theirs and others daily adventures
Why did greek male actors wear masks?
• To indicate age, gender, personality, and social standing of the characters they were playing and to amplify their voice
)What was the purpose of greek chorus?
• Chorus of 12-15 singer-dancers who chanted their lines in unison who remained in orchestra below and separated main interactions of the principles
During what historical period was Shakespeare producing plays?
• In England during the renaissance while the queen Elizabeth was reigning
What are the characteristics of no theatre and kabuki theatre?
• No theatre: japans most revered and cerebral theatre, It's the oldest continuously performed drama in the world. Almost always portrays supernatural events and characters, each play focuses on a single actor. Obscure language
• Kabuki theatre: created 200 hundred years ago, it's a more spectacular and accessible form of theatrical entertainment. It was created to delight large crowds of merchants, traders, courtesans, and ordinary city dwellers. It's a theatrical extravaganza of colors and dance. Audiences usually respond by shouting their favorite actors names or other words of encouragement.
What is the goal of theatre genre realism?
Likeness to life is realism goal and in pursuit of this goal it has renounced idealized/ prettified settings, versifications, contrived endings, and stylized costumes and performances.
What playwright is considered father of realism?
Henry Ibsken who wrote : A Dolls House, Ghosts, Enemy of the People, and Peer Gynt
What are the central themes of theatre of absurd?
• Use futility of all action and the pointlessness of all direction. These themes are developed theatrically through a deliberate and self conscious flaunting of the absurd- in the sense of
What was performance run of Fantastics from 1960-1962?
It ran for 42 years closing in 2002 after 17,000 performances, then reopened again
What was great age of the musical comedy?
The first third of the twentieth century, emphasized youthful romance
What are characteristics of musical drama?
singing and youthful romance with combination of music, singing, acting and dance
What do Jerome Robbins, Tommy Tune, and Susan Stroman have in common?
They were all choreographers and directed
What is Steven Sondheim's greatest influence on modern musicals?
Composed West Side Story, and later departed from standard formats of early shows to develop a new style marked by a disturbing plot, ironic and cynical tone, brutal skepticism about conventional morality, and highly sophisticated lyrics.
What is a black musical?
Musicals largely by, about, and performed by African Americans which attract large "crossover" audiences"
What is juke box musical?
Hugely popular musical theatre entertainment in 21st century gathering songs from composer-performers from popular singing groups.
Difference between off broadway and off off broadway?
• Off broadway: term from 1950s including 40-60 theatres found throughout NY neighborhoods
• Off off broadway: term from 1960s that denotes semiprofessional or even amateur theatres located in the metropolitan areas- church basements, ymca, coffeehouses, and converted studio/garages.