the area embracing Central America and southern and central Mexico, "Middle America" the region extending from modern-day Mexico through Central America
a period when the hunting and gathering lifestyle gave way to permanent settlements and the tending of plants and animals.
an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas
Tierra del Fuego
Southern Tip of Conintent
of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages; The first wave of Asians that migrated to America probably spoke this language
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China; left Spain in 1942.
A superior spear point developed before 9000 B.C. It was in use nearly everywhere in North and South America and produced such an improvement in hunting ability that it contributed to overhunting.
First Europeans to reach North America
near the sea; concerning with shipping or navigation
crops grown for commercial sale, usually produced in a colonial area and sold in europe.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
a class of lower nobles in Spain
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
capital city of Aztec that they believe god told them to find.
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy, a member of an
Declaration of Independence
John Locke's ideas regarding natural rights and the purpose of government are echoed in this U.S. document;, the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions, Lords in Eastern Europe revived serfdom to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants' right of moving freely
a Protestant who is a follower of Anglicanism, Relating to the Church of England, run by Queen Elizabeth I.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
This is another name for the Puritans who arrived in New England in 1629 due to oppression and persecution by the English crown. While in England, these Puritans believed they must remain within the Church of England to reform it.
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
Sir Walter Ralegh
Elizabethan courtier who, in the 1580's, tried but failed to establishe an English colony on Roanoke Island in what is now North Carolina.
first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay
Captain James Smith
led the Jamestown colony; When his explorations uncovered neither gold nor silver, he concentrated on survival by trying to establish friendly relations with the Indians.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
colonies owned by persons who had been given a royal charter to own land
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Massachusetts Bay Company
joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony., A business with power from the king of england to set up a colony,pay for it,and make money from it.
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
period that began in 1660 when the Stuart dynasty under Charles II was restored to the throne of England and ended with the overthrow of James II in 1688-1689.
Dominion of England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
First Navigation Act
Stated that only English ships could be used:1651
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
balance of trade
the difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise
a league of Iroquois tribes including originally the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (the Five Nations)
Covenant Chain of Peace
The Covenant Chain was an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) and the British colonies of North America. Their councils and subsequent treaties concerned colonial settlement, trade, and acts of violence between the Iroquois and the colonists.
The Covenant Chain is embodied in the Two Row Wampum, and got its start in 1676 when the Province of New York's governor Sir Edmund Andros negotiated the signing of two treaties in which the Iroquois spoke on behalf of the other tribes involved:
A treaty between the Iroquois Five Nations and the colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut which ended King Philip's War in New England;
A treaty between the Iroquois and Delawares (Lenape), on one side, and the colonies of Virginia and Maryland, on the other, to obtain peace between those colonies and the Susquehannocks and Iroquois.
Native Americans battle New England colonies; large percentage of native americans died, making it one of the bloodiest wars in US; severely damaged the Native American presence in the new world
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Mixed and Balanced Constitution
kings, lords, commons- reflects society, had a sort of limit of power. In the colonies, king=crown-appointed governor, lords=appointed assembly, and commons=elected assembly.
This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor's residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for nearly 50 years.
limit the inheritance of property to a specific class of heirs
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
A system where planter organized their slaves into gangs, supervised them closely, and had them work in the fields all day. Primarily used on tobacco plantations.
money that has value because the government has ordered that it is an acceptable means to pay debts
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
King George's War
Also known as the War of Austrian Succession. It started out as a conflict between Britain and Spain, but then escalated when France sided with Spain.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
Peace of Paris 1763
Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
non importation agreement
An act signed by 200 merchants pledging not ro buy any British goods until Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, colonial merchants and planters signed these agreements to promise to stop importing goods taxed by the townshed acts
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Battle of Lexington
A conflict marking the beginning of the Revolutionary War in Lexington, Massachusetts, on April 19, 1775. An American force of about seventy minutemen under Capt. John Parker assembled on Lexington green after receiving word from dispatch riders, including Paul Revere, that a British force of about 250 men, under Maj. John Pitcairn, was advancing to Concord to confiscate provincial military supplies. British soldiers fired on Parker's force after hearing a gunshot, although which side the shot came from is uncertain, and it may have been accidental.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Battle of Trenton
The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won.
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Battle of Princeton
A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
June 1776; became the first state to adopt a permanent, republican constitution i) Legislature chose the governor, the governor's council and all judges ii) The governor had no veto and hardly any patronage iii) Lower house faced annual elections but the upper house served 4-year terms iv) George Mason- drafted declaration of rights that the VA delegates passed before constitution- people should define their rights before empowering the government, affirmed human equality (except slaves), condemned hereditary privilege, called for rotation in office, trial by jury and extolled religious liberty
A governing document considered to be highly democratic yet with a tendency toward tyranny as the result of concentrating all powers in one set of hands
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
he believed that national goverment should rule, but only the rich should rule, -Secratary of Treasury
-Wants national bank
-Killed in a duel
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
John Adams was a federalist. he would not give into Hamilton. Their disagreements created a split in the federalist party.
Election of 1800
Tie between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson which went to the House of Representatives. Jefferson won the presidency after 36 ballots when Alexander Hamilton persuaded three members of the House to vote for Jefferson. Significance: 12 amendment
Alien and Sedition Act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
War Hawk Congress
a. Members of the twelfth congress, most young nationalists from southern and western areas, who promoted war with Britain b. Won control of congress under Henry Clay—elected speaker of the house c. Madison sent war message to congress—first declared war under the constitution d. Presented a list of British crimes i. Enforcement of the orders in council, impressemnt of American seamen, use of spies, wielding a malicious influence over the Indians e. Congress declared war on June 18 f. War hawks strengthened the US army, but left the navy weak g. Led into the war of 1812
Shawnee chief who tried to united Native American tribes in Ohio and Indiana against encroaching white rule. Failed.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
a colonial region that ran along the Appalachian Mountains.
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
This was the original name for Lowell, Massachusetts along the Merrimack River. Renamed Lowell in honor of the leading member of the Boston Associates who built the first factory system village at this town. Here every process in spinning and weaving cotton was mechanized.
A system of slave labor under which a slave had to complete a specific assignment each day. After they finished, their time was their own. Used primarily on rice plantations.
owners of small farms
A literate black slave that lived in the Richmond area launched a large scale slave revolt. Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion.
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Election of 1828
The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power; Jackson
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Internal Dispute In Andrew Jackson's Cabinet. Concerned the Marriage of Peggy Timberlake and John Henry Eaton. Resulted in the Purge of his Cabinet.
The Second Bank of the United States
was essentially the same institution supported by Alexander Hamilton a generation before.
Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. In 1832 Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United State's charter because he viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly: it was a private institution managed by a board of directors.
Election of 1840
Whigs united under William Henry Harrison, the one Whig candidate who had won national support 4 years earlier. Borrowing campaign tactics from the Democrats and inventing many of their own, Whigs campaigned hard in every state. The result was a Whig victory and a truly national two-party system.
Prison reform in 1790, based on concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform; actually led to many mental breakdowns; Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
coined the phrase "go west young man" in his paper The New York Tribune
Great American Desert
The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
Region north and west of the Ohio River, included Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, MIchigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
anti-slavery agitators; there was a "Free Soil Party" from 1848 to 1854 (it was absorbed by the Republican Party when that party was formed); "The Free-Soilers' historic slogan calling for 'free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men' attracted small farmers, debtors, village merchants, and household and mill workers, who resented the prospect of black-labour competition-whether slave or free-in the territories
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the "opposing" party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.
an act that allowed people in Kansas and Nebraska to vote whether slavery would be allowed when they became a state
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
bloodshed in Kanas caused by a civil war between pro and anti-slavery groups
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Monitor and Virginia
Battle of the Ironclads at Hampton Rds.
Significance: marked the end of the use of wooden naval ships
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
General Lee's second attack to the north. He goes back to Gettysburg Pennsylvania, has no other alternative. Needs to beat it to the point where Washington wants to negotiate terms. 3 day fight. Largest number of casualties for a battle. In the end Lee's supplies wont sustain him in Pens.
July 1863. Happened at the same time as Gettysburg. Ulysses S. Grant was a general who didn't mind fighting. Grant comes down the Mississippi river and is finally forced to go down on the other side and marches up and captures Jackson, then captures Vicksburg. That cut the confederacy in half. It took 3 months to take Vicksburg.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Reconstruction Act of 1867
This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Pacific Railroad Bill
approved and signed into law by president abrham lincoln on jul 1, 1862. this bill was passed by congress to aide in the contruction on the transcontinential railroad.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Treaty of Traverse des Sioux
1851; treaty that herded the Santee Sioux (largest tribe of Plains Indians) onto reservations along the Minnesota River
battle of Little Big Horn
Sioux leader sitting bull led the fight against general George Custer and the 7th cavalry. The Sioux wanted miners out of the black hills, and had appealed to government officials in Washington to stop the miners. Washington doesn't listen. When custer came to little bighorn rivers sitting bull and his warriors were ready and killed them all!
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Jim Crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
City Commissioner Plan
Cities hire experts in different fields to run a single aspect of government: Ex. Sanitation Commissioner
City Manager Plan
Elected officials hired an outside expert who was usually a highly trained businessman or engineer to take charge of the government. People believed that this would result in decrease of corruption in politics.
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick
refers to Roosevelt Diplomacy, which allowed for aggressive foreign policy. "big stick" = the US Navy
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care, a response to the lack of adequate medical care for women and children
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools, Substitute Teacher Scopes mentioned evolution in class, WJ Bryan prosecuted him, Clarence Darrow defended him. Happened in Dayton, TN Bryan admitted on the stand that bible needed interpretation, not taken literally. "Boosterism" city leaders publicity stunts to get attention
Causes of Great Depression
stock market crash, farmings went up, automovil, agriculture,high tarrifs, underconsuption , buying stocks on margins
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date.
First New Deal
The "First New Deal" of 1933 was aimed at short-term recovery programs for all groups. The Roosevelt administration promoted or implemented banking reform laws, emergency relief programs, work relief programs, agricultural programs, and industrial reform (the NRA), a federal welfare state, as well as the end of the gold standard and prohibition. A
Second New Deal
"Second New Deal" (1935-1936) included labor union support, the WPA relief program, the Social Security Act, and programs to aid farmers, including tenant farmers and migrant workers.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
cash and carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Soviets tried to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city; US used air force to air life supplies over to citizens.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality
Highway Act of 1956
was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of 40,000 miles (64,000 km) of interstate highways over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.
Brown v. the Board of Education
1954, Decision said "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal", Brown II- said decision should be carried out "with all deliberate speed" which South translated into never
Civil Rights Act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. It was proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
a youth-dominated political movement of the 1960s, embodied in such organization as Students for a Democratic Society and the Ree Speech Movement.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Equal Right Amendment
"Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the U.S. and every place subject to its jurisdiction." Many women's organizations opposed this, because other gender-specific laws were threatened.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
opposed ERA, focused on social, cultural, and moral problems, opposed gevernment paying for daycare
Strategic Defensive Initiative
Known as "star wars" Reagan's proposed defense system against Soviet missile attacks
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
Congressional Black Caucus
an organization representing the African American members of the United States Congress
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
(DDE) , Governor Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School to keep the nine students from entering the school, because he believed black and whites should be segregated, despite Federal laws on integration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to keep them safe
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)