Life's building blocks
how are organic molecules related to all living things?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
name four catagories of organic molecules which form the basis of all living things
all of the organic molecules are based on which element?
many times, the molecules join to form long chains with what kind of backbones?
form large molecules and stacked like a wall
how are the building blocks of organic molecules like bricks?
sugar, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides
what is the building block of each of the four classes of organic molecules?
building blocks joined together to form a wall- large molecule
what is a polymer?
their functional groups and shapes
what determines how organic molecules look and behave?
1. all contain carbon
2. small molecules
3. produces functional group
4. builds larger molecules
what are the four common characteristics of all organic molecules?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
what are the elements contained in carbohydrates?
a monosacchride (sugar)
what is the building block of carbohydrates?
what is a monosacchride?
looks like a ring
what does a monosacchride look like?
what is a disacchride?
three or more sugars
how does a polysacchride differ from a disachride?
mono, poly, di
what are the three classes of carbohydrates?
startches, glycogen, cellulose
what are the three classes of polysacchrides
what involves food stoage in plants?
what inloves food storage in animals?
get quick energy
why would an athlete have a big pasta dinner before a race?
what is the building block of a lipid?
lard, oil, butter, wax
name examples of lipids
chain of carbon w/ single hydrogen bonds. has carboxyl group
decribe the structure of a fatty acid
unhealthy fats, no hydrogen bonds are lost
what is a saturated fatty acid?
soluble in oil, but insoluble in water
explain the solubility of lipids
if you out your food on a brown napkin, then you hold up your napkin to the light and it is translucent, then you know your food was a lipid.
how would you test for lipids, and what is a positive result
forms muscle, transfer oxygen, hormones
what are some of the functions of proteins?
what is the building block of proteins?
what is the name of the bond that joins amino acids?
how many different amino acids are there?
the R group
what part of the amino acid varies from one amino acid to another?
the sequence of the R group
what determines the shape and function of a protein?
DNA & RNA
what are two types of nucleic acids?
genetic info to produce proteins
what is the role of DNA?
carry out instructions from the DNA to the cytoplasm were protein is made
what is the role of RNA?
what is the building blocks of nucleic acids?
1. 5 carbon sugar
2. phosphate group
3. nitrgoen base
what are the three parts of this monomer?
double helix, looks like a ladder
describe the structure and shape of DNA
sugars and phosphate
what are the rails of the ladder made of?
how are the rails of the ladder kept together?
what are the four different DNA bases?
'A' always pairs with what base?
2. double helix-one strand
4. cannot leave nucleus of a cell-can leave nucleus
List four differences between DNA and RNA
1. both contain sugar
2. have C & G bases
List two similarities between DNA and RNA
what part of the later do bases form?
what is the name of the chemical process that joins a dicacchride and the polysacchride?
5 (always same as peptide bond)
if there is 5 peptide bonds present in a moecule, how many molecules of water are present
scientific study of life
study of chemistry of living things
sucrose (table sugar)
glucose + fructose =
maltose (grain sugar) or lactose (milk sugar)
glucose + glucose =
break down dissacchride into monosacchride by adding water
walls of fungi and exoskeletons of many arthropods
cystalline solids at RT
soluble in water
low MP and BP
usually white solids
characterisctics of mono and di sacchrides
solids at RT
characteristics of polyssacchride
structural protein- muscles and ligaments
structural protein- feathers and nails
removal of H20 forms...
denature of protein structures
if h bonds break protein will uncoil, protein will loose shape and function
liquids at Rt
fatty acid chains contain unsaturation
linked chains do not pack as tight as solids
plants make unsaturated oils
characteristics of oils
semi-solids at RT
saturated; packed tightly
animals covert excess sugar to fat
characteristics of waxes