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Q/A from Dr. Marcoux's exams 1-4.

Anthrpology takes a ____ approach that includes a wide geographic and historical range.

Holistic

An artifact is _____ .

Anything made or modified by humans

Culture is ____ .

The customary ways of thinking and behaving in a particular group (ie society).

People practiced applied anthropology in all of the following areas except:

The classroom.

A _____ is interested in language and its relation to culture.

Structural or Anthropological linguist

Which of the following is not a stone tool tradition identified with early hominids?

Laetolian

By AD 500 there were approximately ____ people living in Teotihuacan.

100,000.

Which of the following is least likely to interest an archaeologist?

Dinosaur bones.

Archaeologists rely on all of the following types of evidence to discover the past except:

Books.

Archaeology is _____.

The reconstruction of past cultures based on material.

The first hominids to leave Africa and spread out across Europe, Asia, Java, and Africa were _____.

Homo erectus.

The study of how language is changed throughout time and how they may be related is ______.

Historical linguistics.

A storage pit found at an archaeological site is a good example of a ____.

Feature.

According to the Mardu Aboriginies book, at the time of European contact, Australian Aborigine groups ______.

Spoke over 200 different languages.

Physical (Biological) anthropologists focus their research on all of the following except:

Plants.

In the reading "Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief," the anthropologist studied in what country?

India.

The two general categories of dating used in archaeology are absolute and ______.

Relative.

State level societies in Africa include all but the following:

Chavin.

In order to use radio carbon C14 dating, you must _______ .

Have organic remains like shell or charcoal.

Which of the following is not a distinctive hominid behavioral trait?

Practicing deception.

Which of the following is NOT an example of an archaeological feature?

Stone axe.

Early homo sapiens in Europe painted portraits of _____ in caves.

Animals.

The skeleton of humans differs from that of Great Apes in all of the following ways except:

Humans have perfectly straight legs, while apes have angled legs.

About how long ago did the evolutionary split occur between hominids and apes?

6 million years ago.

Most archaeologist believe that the _____ was one of the earliest centers of plant and animal domestication.

Fertile crescent.

A group of people who depend on each other for survival or well being is known to anthropologists as a ________.

Society.

The idea that a societies customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that societies problems and opportunities is called:

Cultural relativism.

Which of the following is NOT usually considered one of the four main subfields of anthropology?

Paleontology.

Archaeologists define the neolithic period as the time when ______.

People began to produce food rather than just collecting it.

In the reading "Shakespeare in the Bush," the Tiv elders _________.

constantly interrupted the anthropologist in order to correct her telling of Hamlet.

According to your readings, the Mardu Aborigines ________.

Arrived in Australia between 30-50,000 years ago.

The famous footprints of an australopithecus were found at:

Laetoli

Bronislaw Malinowski studied the _____ trading system of the Trobriand Islanders.

Kula Ring.

The comparative study of cultures defined general principles or laws that govern culture is called:

ethnology.

The unilineal system of social evolution put forth by Tylor and Morgan included all of the following stages except:

Huns.

The term _____ describes when people settle down and live in one place for a long period of time.

Sedentary.

If you focused on analyzing skeletal remains as part of criminal investigation, you would be

Forensic anthropologists.

According to your readings, today most Australian Aborigines like the Mardu live _____.

In Australia's western desert.

Anthropology is literally the study of ______.

Humans.

The most complete skeleton of an australopithecus is nicknamed _____.

Lucy.

An economic system ______.

Includes the norms governing production, distribution, and consumption in a society.

When we say that communication is _____, we mean at least two things. First, communication has meaning even when the referent is not there, and second, the meaning is arbitrary.

Symbolic.

The textiles made by the Cuna indians of Panama are a good example of:

Diffusion.

The Inuit subsist mostly on _____ because _____ do not exist in large numbers at their northerly latitude.

Meat; Plants.

All of the following are examples are examples of balanced reciprocity except:

Deceiving a trading partner because he or she is an outsider.

The smallest unit of language has a meaning that is called _______.

Morph.

Anthropologists as well as other social scientists feel that culture is ______.

Learned and Shared.

Of the following, which is not a feature of groups practicing intensive agriculture?

Smaller populations.

Some grammar theoreticians like Noam Chomsky have suggested that there may be a _____ in the brain as innate to humans as call systems are to other animals.

Language and acquisition device.

The major source for meat for Samoan Islanders is:

Fish.

Because a word or phrase can represent what it stands for, whether or not that thing is present, we say that language is:

Symbolic.

A Potlatch and Moka are perfect examples of _______.

Redistribution.

Capitalism is characterized by which of the following fundamental attributes?

All of the above:
- a small portion of the population owns and produces resources
- workers always contribute more to production than they receive in wages.
- most peoples' primary resource is their labor.

Which of the following is a form of a leveling mechanism?

Sponsoring feasts as part of a cargo system.

A _______ language is one that develops from a pidgin language.

Creole.

The term food collection refers to the subsistence practice of obtaining:

Wild plants and wild animals.

______ is or are variant forms of language.

Dialects.

The following is true about the sexual division of labor among the Mardu Aborigines:

Men hunt larger game, and women primarily gather plant resources.

Standards or rules about what is acceptable behavior are referred to by social scientists as:

Norms.

Words that are similar in sound and meaning are:

Cognates.

Children learn spoken language:

at about the same age in all cultures.

Of the following, which is not a feature of horticultural societies?

Abandonment of property rights.

To say that culture is mostly integrated, means that:

Customs and traits making up culture are interrelated.

Trade among the Mardu Aborigines is important ______.

For reaffirming social ties between bands.

The subsistence strategy that characterized most of human history until about 8000 years ago was ______.

Food Collection.

A pidgin language:

is a simplified language based on the language of a dominant group.

Cash crops are _____.

Crops that are grown for trade rather than for subsistence.

Cultural ecology is a concentration within anthropology that focuses on:

Human adaptation.

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:

Language influences culture by affecting how individuals in a society perceive reality.

In anthropology "C"ulture refers to:

All the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.

When people grow foods using simple tools and without using fertilizer, we call this:

Horticulture.

Which of the following is true about communication?

Both B and C.
- it includes symbols that are agreed upon like colors and sensations
- language is a form of communication that transmits culture.

Group size among the Mardu Aborigines:

is largest during wet months when water is most abundant.

The study of communication by non verbal or non vocal means is called:

kinesics.

The Baseri pastoralists of Iran are characterized by all of the following except:

Individual ownership of land.

The rules that determine how phrases and sentences are formed make up a language's

Syntax.

Before Europeans came to America, all the aboriginal people there depended on:

food collection.

The term subculture refers to:

The variant culture of a group of people within a larger society.

When studying language, linguists call each sound a:

phone.

In the movie, Ongka's big Moka, the main source of wealth used in giving gifts were:

Pigs.

When descent is reckoned both the mother's and the father's line, this is called ______.

Bilateral descent

Marriage is a socially approved ______ and ______ union.

Sexual and economic.

With regard to kinship, the Mardu _______.

do not distinguish between close blood relatives and distant kin.

Which of the following theories explains the differences between male and female roses based on the greater physical endurance of males?

Strength theory.

Rituals that celebrate the movement of an individual from one social status to another are called _______.

Rites of passage.

The fact that people who were raised together in the same commune are uninterested in each other as marriage partners supports which theory of incest taboo?

The "childhood familiarity" theory.

Kinship is defined as ______________.

a culturally defined relationship established through blood or marriage.

Which of the following explains why men generally are the leaders in most societies?

Men are often the warriors, and this translates to political leadership.

Mardu kinship is based on ________ descent.

Bilateral.

Of the following, which is the most common form if economic marriage transaction?

Bride price.

Of the following, which is NOT a primary subsistence activity?

Storing corn.

Among the Mardu, childbirth ___________.

involves only the mother and couple of her female relatives who act as midwives.

Marriage is considered a ________ trait by anthropologist because it is practiced by all societies.

Universal.

________ is the term anthropologists use to define the culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents.

Descent.

Death rites among the Mardu _________.

involve the secondary burial after the body has been left to decay for some time.

Bride _______ is a gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride's kin.

price.

In some Native American cultures, there is a third gender called ________.

"Two-Spirits."

In matrilineal societies all of the following are true except:

Men tend to have more power in society.

Gender is _________.

a cultural classification.

In which group were incestuous marriages permitted?

royal Egyptian families.

Mardu marriage rules encourage _________.

cross-cousin marriage.

According to the __________ theory, men may produce instruments from wood because men are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its physical properties better.

economy of effort.

When a young male moves in with and works for his future bride's family for a trial period, we call this:

Bride service.

Mardu boys and girls ___________.

typically play together from birth until about the age of seven.

The theory that inbreeding can be genetically harmful to animals that produce few offspring

is probably true.

Sex is _________.

Both A and B.
- a scientific classification based on biological differences.
- strictly male or female.

Male initiation rites among the Mardu include ________.

all of the above:
- tooth evulsion
- circumcision
- nose piercing

In a cross-cultural study, men were found to be leaders in _______ of the surveyed societies.

Most.

Marriage rules stating that one must marry outside one's kin groups or community are called rules of ___________.

exogamy.

The smallest social unit among the Mardu is the ___________.

Family.

Which theory hypothesizes that the taboo for incest forced families to out marry, which promoted cooperation between families?

Forming wider alliances theory.

The __________ theory explains why men typically engage in the dangerous tasks.

Expendability theory.

All of the following are characteristics of corporate descent groups EXCEPT:

They include a number of people who do not share a common ancestor.

In many societies across the world, wedding ceremonies can be characterized by the following statement(s).

All of the above:
- They can include large numbers of guests.
- The details can be painstakingly negotiated.
- They can include mock battles.

__________ is practiced when a newlywed couple goes to live with the bride's uncle's family.

Avunclocal residence.

If we count all work performed in a society, then usually ____________.

Women work more hours a day than men.

Marriage rules stating that one must marry inside some social group or community are called rules of __________.

endogamy.

The initiation of a Masai warrior ___________.

centers around circumcision.

Which of the following is NOT true of gender roles?

Females rarely care for infants.

When one man is married to multiple women, this type of marriage is called:

polygyny.

A society with equal access to wealth and power, but unequal access to prestige, is called ________.

a rank society.

Members of cargo cults-- the religious revitalization movement among Solomon Islanders-- believe that ___________.

a tidal wave will someday wipe out Europeans and a magic ship will later bring them European goods.

In the 1800s and early 1900s, average Americans thought that the ancient earthen mounds were built by _________.

and extinct "race" like the Lost Tribe or Israel.

Anthropologists define religion as _____________.

any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power.

_________ are person who do not own their labor, and as such they represent a class.

Slaves.

In the movie "People Like Us," the people of Burlington, VT fought over _____________.

the type of grocery that would be built in their community.

Anthropologists measure social inequality by looking at differences in access to all the following types of advantages except:

none of the above.

The main difference between sorcery and witchcraft is that _____________.

sorcery uses objects and materials while witchcraft works through thought alone.

In egalitarian societies, ________________.

there are status differences among people that are based on age, sex, and ability.

Archaeologists have identified the supernatural "hero" named _____________ in modern Siouan myths with figures portrayed in 1000 year old Native American artifacts.

Redhorn.

In some Polynesian cultures it is forbidden to be near a menstruating woman for fear or harm. This prohibition is called a _________.

taboo.

If you were to divide the world's population into two groups according to the presence or absence of an epicanthic fold, (i.e. almond-shaped eyes vs. round eyes), _________.

the almond-shaped-eye group would include both Asian and African people.

Powers believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature are called _________.

Supernatural.

A ___________ is defined as a group of persons who all have about the same opportunities to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.

class.

__________ are full time, high status, male specialists that officiate public events. They are often seen as having a superior knowledge of the supernatural.

Priests.

In the movie "People Like Us," one interviewee talks about a social group called WASPs, which stands for __________.

White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.

The act of granting freedom to slaves is commonly referred to as ________.

Manumission.

All of the following traits can be attributed to the position of chief except:

Chiefs have incredible amounts of power and large stores of economic wealth.

Australian aborigine is known as _________ - a religion centered on animals and plants that are seen as ancestors or intimately related to particular groups.

Totemism.

According to the movie "People Like Us," most Americans consider themselves _________.

Middle Class.

When members of a population can be divided into separate groups based on clear differences in a given trait (we used pencil height in class), we call this _____________.

discrete variation.

________ is a belief in impersonal supernatural forces like luck or evil.

Animatism.

With regard to social inequality, studies over the last 90 years have shown that the gap between the rich and the poor in the United States _____________.

is growing.

When it comes to race, Anthropologists generally argue that ____________.

There is more variation within any given human population than between any two populations.

Which of the following is not a typical trait that describes a shaman?

full-time specialist.

When members of a species display clear differences in certain physical traits, biologists divide them into ____________.

races.

Modern industrial societies are noted for having unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige. These are ______ societies.

class.

Which of the following ways of interacting with the supernatura involves going into a trance by using drugs, deprivation, or dancing?

Physiological experience.

Among the Azande, the Benge Oracle is also known as the _____________.

The poison oracle.

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