A _____ is interested in language and its relation to culture.
Structural or Anthropological linguist
The first hominids to leave Africa and spread out across Europe, Asia, Java, and Africa were _____.
The study of how language is changed throughout time and how they may be related is ______.
According to the Mardu Aboriginies book, at the time of European contact, Australian Aborigine groups ______.
Spoke over 200 different languages.
In order to use radio carbon C14 dating, you must _______ .
Have organic remains like shell or charcoal.
The skeleton of humans differs from that of Great Apes in all of the following ways except:
Humans have perfectly straight legs, while apes have angled legs.
Most archaeologist believe that the _____ was one of the earliest centers of plant and animal domestication.
A group of people who depend on each other for survival or well being is known to anthropologists as a ________.
The idea that a societies customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that societies problems and opportunities is called:
Which of the following is NOT usually considered one of the four main subfields of anthropology?
Archaeologists define the neolithic period as the time when ______.
People began to produce food rather than just collecting it.
In the reading "Shakespeare in the Bush," the Tiv elders _________.
constantly interrupted the anthropologist in order to correct her telling of Hamlet.
According to your readings, the Mardu Aborigines ________.
Arrived in Australia between 30-50,000 years ago.
The comparative study of cultures defined general principles or laws that govern culture is called:
The unilineal system of social evolution put forth by Tylor and Morgan included all of the following stages except:
The term _____ describes when people settle down and live in one place for a long period of time.
If you focused on analyzing skeletal remains as part of criminal investigation, you would be
According to your readings, today most Australian Aborigines like the Mardu live _____.
In Australia's western desert.
An economic system ______.
Includes the norms governing production, distribution, and consumption in a society.
When we say that communication is _____, we mean at least two things. First, communication has meaning even when the referent is not there, and second, the meaning is arbitrary.
The Inuit subsist mostly on _____ because _____ do not exist in large numbers at their northerly latitude.
All of the following are examples are examples of balanced reciprocity except:
Deceiving a trading partner because he or she is an outsider.
Of the following, which is not a feature of groups practicing intensive agriculture?
Some grammar theoreticians like Noam Chomsky have suggested that there may be a _____ in the brain as innate to humans as call systems are to other animals.
Language and acquisition device.
Because a word or phrase can represent what it stands for, whether or not that thing is present, we say that language is:
Capitalism is characterized by which of the following fundamental attributes?
All of the above:
- a small portion of the population owns and produces resources
- workers always contribute more to production than they receive in wages.
- most peoples' primary resource is their labor.
Which of the following is a form of a leveling mechanism?
Sponsoring feasts as part of a cargo system.
The term food collection refers to the subsistence practice of obtaining:
Wild plants and wild animals.
The following is true about the sexual division of labor among the Mardu Aborigines:
Men hunt larger game, and women primarily gather plant resources.
Standards or rules about what is acceptable behavior are referred to by social scientists as:
Of the following, which is not a feature of horticultural societies?
Abandonment of property rights.
To say that culture is mostly integrated, means that:
Customs and traits making up culture are interrelated.
The subsistence strategy that characterized most of human history until about 8000 years ago was ______.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:
Language influences culture by affecting how individuals in a society perceive reality.
In anthropology "C"ulture refers to:
All the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.
Which of the following is true about communication?
Both B and C.
- it includes symbols that are agreed upon like colors and sensations
- language is a form of communication that transmits culture.
The Baseri pastoralists of Iran are characterized by all of the following except:
Individual ownership of land.
When descent is reckoned both the mother's and the father's line, this is called ______.
With regard to kinship, the Mardu _______.
do not distinguish between close blood relatives and distant kin.
Which of the following theories explains the differences between male and female roses based on the greater physical endurance of males?
Rituals that celebrate the movement of an individual from one social status to another are called _______.
Rites of passage.
The fact that people who were raised together in the same commune are uninterested in each other as marriage partners supports which theory of incest taboo?
The "childhood familiarity" theory.
Kinship is defined as ______________.
a culturally defined relationship established through blood or marriage.
Which of the following explains why men generally are the leaders in most societies?
Men are often the warriors, and this translates to political leadership.
Among the Mardu, childbirth ___________.
involves only the mother and couple of her female relatives who act as midwives.
Marriage is considered a ________ trait by anthropologist because it is practiced by all societies.
________ is the term anthropologists use to define the culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents.
Death rites among the Mardu _________.
involve the secondary burial after the body has been left to decay for some time.
In matrilineal societies all of the following are true except:
Men tend to have more power in society.
According to the __________ theory, men may produce instruments from wood because men are the ones who collect the wood in the first place and probably understand its physical properties better.
economy of effort.
When a young male moves in with and works for his future bride's family for a trial period, we call this:
The theory that inbreeding can be genetically harmful to animals that produce few offspring
is probably true.
Sex is _________.
Both A and B.
- a scientific classification based on biological differences.
- strictly male or female.
Male initiation rites among the Mardu include ________.
all of the above:
- tooth evulsion
- nose piercing
Marriage rules stating that one must marry outside one's kin groups or community are called rules of ___________.
Which theory hypothesizes that the taboo for incest forced families to out marry, which promoted cooperation between families?
Forming wider alliances theory.
The __________ theory explains why men typically engage in the dangerous tasks.
All of the following are characteristics of corporate descent groups EXCEPT:
They include a number of people who do not share a common ancestor.
In many societies across the world, wedding ceremonies can be characterized by the following statement(s).
All of the above:
- They can include large numbers of guests.
- The details can be painstakingly negotiated.
- They can include mock battles.
__________ is practiced when a newlywed couple goes to live with the bride's uncle's family.
If we count all work performed in a society, then usually ____________.
Women work more hours a day than men.
Marriage rules stating that one must marry inside some social group or community are called rules of __________.
A society with equal access to wealth and power, but unequal access to prestige, is called ________.
a rank society.
Members of cargo cults-- the religious revitalization movement among Solomon Islanders-- believe that ___________.
a tidal wave will someday wipe out Europeans and a magic ship will later bring them European goods.
In the 1800s and early 1900s, average Americans thought that the ancient earthen mounds were built by _________.
and extinct "race" like the Lost Tribe or Israel.
Anthropologists define religion as _____________.
any set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices pertaining to supernatural power.
In the movie "People Like Us," the people of Burlington, VT fought over _____________.
the type of grocery that would be built in their community.
Anthropologists measure social inequality by looking at differences in access to all the following types of advantages except:
none of the above.
The main difference between sorcery and witchcraft is that _____________.
sorcery uses objects and materials while witchcraft works through thought alone.
In egalitarian societies, ________________.
there are status differences among people that are based on age, sex, and ability.
Archaeologists have identified the supernatural "hero" named _____________ in modern Siouan myths with figures portrayed in 1000 year old Native American artifacts.
In some Polynesian cultures it is forbidden to be near a menstruating woman for fear or harm. This prohibition is called a _________.
If you were to divide the world's population into two groups according to the presence or absence of an epicanthic fold, (i.e. almond-shaped eyes vs. round eyes), _________.
the almond-shaped-eye group would include both Asian and African people.
Powers believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature are called _________.
A ___________ is defined as a group of persons who all have about the same opportunities to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.
__________ are full time, high status, male specialists that officiate public events. They are often seen as having a superior knowledge of the supernatural.
In the movie "People Like Us," one interviewee talks about a social group called WASPs, which stands for __________.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
All of the following traits can be attributed to the position of chief except:
Chiefs have incredible amounts of power and large stores of economic wealth.
Australian aborigine is known as _________ - a religion centered on animals and plants that are seen as ancestors or intimately related to particular groups.
According to the movie "People Like Us," most Americans consider themselves _________.
When members of a population can be divided into separate groups based on clear differences in a given trait (we used pencil height in class), we call this _____________.
With regard to social inequality, studies over the last 90 years have shown that the gap between the rich and the poor in the United States _____________.
When it comes to race, Anthropologists generally argue that ____________.
There is more variation within any given human population than between any two populations.
When members of a species display clear differences in certain physical traits, biologists divide them into ____________.
Modern industrial societies are noted for having unequal access to economic resources, power, and prestige. These are ______ societies.
Which of the following ways of interacting with the supernatura involves going into a trance by using drugs, deprivation, or dancing?
The Mardu practice ___________ that ensure that resources will be plentiful in the future.
To the Azande, witchcraft _______________.
is used to explain events that western science would typically call coincidences.
When one trait (eg. hair color) cannot be used to predict another trait, (eg. eye color), we call this ________.
A ___________ is a ranked group, historically associated with one's profession, in which membership is determined at birth and marriage is restricted to members of one's own group.
In the movie "People Like Us," they depict _______ - a social club that caters to upper class African Americans.
Jack and Jill.
If all people in a society have equal access to wealth, prestige, and power, then anthropologists call that society ___________.
In Mardu religion, stories about creation and the landscape ______________.
often include important information about the location of food resources.
In class, Dr. Marcoux talked about how his movement between social classes was aided
His parents' investment in his education.
In the movie "People Like Us," Tammy and her son live in a trailer in rural Ohio and have very little money. Tammy's son _____________.
is ashamed of their class and tries to dress and act as someone of a higher class.