Medical Terminology

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Origin

beginning of muscle that stays stationary

abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

adduction

movement toward the midline of the body

-asthenia

lack of strength

atonia

lack of muscle tone

atrophy

decrease in size of an organ or tissue from lack of muscle use and growth

biceps

2 sections to a muscle

biceps brachii

flexes the forearm and supinates forearm

biceps femoris

located over the femur

cardiac muscle

is striated in apperiance but is like smooth muscle in its action, involuntary in side the heart

circumduction

make a circle at the end of the limb

contracture

normal muscle and connective tissue turns to scar tissue from lack of use

deltoid

abducts shoulder

dorsiflextion

dereasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends up

dystonia

poor muscle tone

elevation

action of moving a body part upward

extension

increases the angle of a joint, straightening of a flexed limb

fascioplasty

surgical repair of a fascia or fibrous band

fasciorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a fascia , fibrous band

fasciotomy

surgical incission of a fascia, fibrous band

flexion

bending a limb, decreasing the angle between bones

frontalis

anterior body over frontal bone

gastrocnemius

plantar flex, bends knee and lifts heel off the ground

gluteus maximus

extends, abducts, and rotates thigh externally of the hip

hemiplegia

complete paralysis to either left/right side of the body

hypertrophy

increase in size of an organ or tissue

insertion

the point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves

involuntary muscle

smooth/ cardiac muscle

lateral

towards the side

lateralis

muscle is towards the side

latissimus dorsi

lower back muscle

masseter

elevates mandible, elevates jaw for chewing

myalgia

muscle pain

myitis

inflammation of the muscle

myocele

herniation of muscle tissue through the fascia

myomalacia

abnormal softening of the muscle

myonecrosis

muscle tissue death of individual fibers

myoparesis

partial paralysis of the muscle

myopathy

disease of muscle

myorrhexis

muscle rupture

myotomy

surgical incission of a muscle

oblique

fiber of muscle are at an angle

oblicularis oculi

surrounds the eyes

oblicularis oris

surrounds the mouth

paraplegia

complete paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body caused by injury or disease of the spinal column

-paresis

partial or incomplete paralysis

pectoralis major

adducts, flexes, rotates shoulder inward

plantar flexion

motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground

-plegia

complete paralysis inability to move

pronation

turning the palm downward and backward

quadriceps

four parts

quadriplegia

all four extremities are affected, injury is at the cervical level of the spinal column, complete paralysis

rectus femoris

lower extremity over the femur

rotation

circular movement around a central point

spasm

involuntary contraction of a muscle

spincter

circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening, round muscle fibers or circular

sternocleidomastoid

turns head when one muscle is contracted, both contracted turns head down, muscle is on both sides of the neck

supination

turning the palm upward and forward

temporalis

over temple bone

tibialis anterior

drsi flexes the foot

transverse

muscle fibers go horizontal

trapezius

elevates and shruggs the shoulders

-trophy

development, nourishment

vastus lateralis

side of leg

vastus medialis

midline

voluntary muscle

skeletol muscle, moves all bones as well as controlling facial expression, and eye movement

zygomatic

smiling muscle over cheek bones

triceps brachii

extends the elbow (straightens the arm)

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